Volume 17(1): September, 2011

STRENGTH TRAINING 6

This first issue of Volume 17 of Coaching Science Abstracts reviews articles concerned with strength and resistance training and stretching. The first issue of strength training can be accessed as Volume 2(1), the second as Volume 5(1), the third as Volume 8(1), the fourth as Volume 11(1), and the fifth as Volume 14(1). These latest researches indicate that many of today's strength training practices are incorrect and the benefits from such training is greatly exaggerated.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

GENERAL THEORY

  1. STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE TRAINING CAN BE UNDERTAKEN CONCURRENTLY

    Quigg, L. R., Quebedeaux, L. P., Mitchell, J.. B., & Upton, D. E. (2008). The effect of two concurrent training programs with different inter-session recovery on muscular strength. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis. Presentation number 2162.

  2. STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE TRAINING CAN OCCUR CONCURRENTLY BUT EFFECTS ARE INDEPENDENT OF EACH OTHER

    Taipale, R.S., Gitonga, D., Walker, S., Nummela, A., Vesterinen, V., Mikkola, J., & Häkkinen, K. (2009). Role of strength training in endurance runners during preparatory, maximal versus explosive, and reduced strength training periods. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

  3. ONLY FORCE PRODUCTION DECLINES WITH FATIGUE

    Kremenic, I. J., Glace, B. W., & McHugh, M. P. (2008). EMG changes during a prolonged bout of cycling. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis. Presentation number 2501.

  4. STRENGTH TRAINING PROVOKES CHANGES INDEPENDENT OF GENDER AND RACE

    Hanson, E. D., Walts, C. T., Delmonico, M. J., Yao, L., Wang, M. Q., & Hurley, B. F. (2008). Do sex or race differences influence strength training effects on muscle or fat? ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis. Presentation number 617.

  5. UNTRAINED SUBJECTS RESPOND DIFFERENTLY TO TRAINING STRENGTH SETS FOR LEGS AND ARMS

    Bottario, M., Veloso, J., Riera, T., Martorelli, S., & Martorelli, A. (2009). Effect of single vs. multiple sets of resistance exercise on muscle strength. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. Presentation number 1783.

  6. MOTOR UNITS IN YOUNG AND OLD, MALES AND FEMALES RESPOND SIMILARLY TO TRAINING

    Christie, A., & Kamen, G. (2009). Gender and age-related training adaptations in maximal motoneuron firing rate. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. Presentation number 2700.

  7. PEAK TORQUE OCCURRENCE IS GENDER DEPENDENT

    Warren, B. L., Moody, S., & Malikie, D. (2009). Effect of variable repetitions on peak torque in male and female athletes. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. Presentation number 2766.

  8. ANABOLIC RESPONSES ARE ENHANCED BY LOW-INTENSITY AEROBIC EXERCISE FOLLOWING RESISTANCE EXERCISE

    Chou, C-C., Wu, S-S., Chen, T-S., Lin, J-C. (June 2, 2010). Low-intensity of running favors for anabolic response after resistance exercise. Presentation 1491 at the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; June 2-5.

  9. RESISTANCE TRAINING DOES NOT IMPROVE BLOOD PRESSURE

    Wang, J., & Zhu, W. (June 2, 2010). Effects of resistance training on resting blood pressure: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies. Presentation 1502 at the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; June 2-5.

  10. NOVICE RESISTANCE TRAINERS IMPROVE THROUGH SKILL ACQUISITION NOT STRUCTURAL CHANGES

    Pearce, A. J., Grikepelis, L. A., & Kidgell, D. J. (2009). Neural adaptations following strength training in children and adolescents: A TMS pilot study. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

    STRENGTH TRAINING FACTORS

  11. ISOMETRIC STRENGTH HAS LIMITED IMPLICATIONS FOR MOVEMENT PERFORMANCES

    Nelson, A. G., McGuigan, M. R., & Winchester, J. B. (2008).The relationship between isometric and dynamic strength in college football players. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis. Presentation number 2152.

  12. ISCHEMIA DOES NOT ENHANCE STRENGTH TRAINING

    Elder, C. P., & McCully, K. K. (2008). Skeletal muscle adaptations to resistance training with ischemia. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis. Presentation number 543.

  13. RESISTANCE TRAINING AUGMENTED WITH WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION IMPROVES JUMPING PERFORMANCE

    Lamont, H. S., Bemben, M. G., & Cramer, J. T. (2008). Effects of six weeks periodized squat training with or without WBLFV upon acute responsiveness to vibration. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis. Presentation number 619.

  14. BRANCHED CHAIN AMINO ACID SUPPLEMENTATION DOES NOT AFFECT RESISTANCE EXERCISE

    Campbell, B., La Bounty, P. M., Oetken, A., Kreider, R. B., Greenwood, M., & Willoughby, D. S. (2009). The effects of branched chain amino acid supplementation on total lower body workout volume. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. Presentation number 2314.

  15. LEUCINE DOES NOT IMPROVE RESISTANCE TRAINING PERFORMANCE

    La Bounty, P. M., Campbell, B., Oetken, A., Lutz, R., Kreider, R., Greenwood, M., & Willoughby, D. (2009). The effect of leucine supplementation on total lower-body workout volume. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. Presentation number 2320.

  16. STRENGTH AND POWER TRAINING CHANGES ARE REFLECTED IN HORMONAL MARKERS

    Winchester, J. B., Nelson, A. G., Stewart, L. K., & Stone, M. H. (2009). Testosterone to cortisol ratio shows strong relationship with adaptation to a strength and power training regimen in American-style collegiate football players. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. Presentation number 2410.

  17. DYNAMIC STRENGTH PERFORMANCE IS MOSTLY RELATED TO OTHER FACTORS IN STRENGTH ACTIVITIES

    Weiss, L. W., Schilling, B. K., Fry, A. C., Chiu, L. Z., & Moore, C. A. (2009). Expressions of strength and average rate of dynamic force development: Are these measures related? ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. Presentation number 2764.

  18. ALTERATION OF A MUSCLE'S NORMAL RANGE OF MOTION AND POSITIONING RESULTS IN CHANGES IN FUNCTION AND ACTIVATION

    Stoutenberg, M., Pluchino, A., Lewis, J. E., Gao, J.,& Signorile, J. F. (2009). Optimal range of motion for maximal EMG activation of the superficial quadriceps muscles. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. Presentation number 724.

  19. HEAVY RESISTANCE TRAINING CHANGES THE STRETCH-SHORTENING CYCLE OF THE MOVEMENTS TRAINED BUT POSSIBLY AT DIFFERENT VELOCITIES

    Jakobsen, M. D., Sundstrup, E., Krustrup, P., & Aagaard, P. (2009). Does progressive strength training improve stretch-shortening cycle muscle performance? ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. Presentation number 726.

  20. TRAINED STRENGTH DETRAINS BUT SOME PORTION OF PREVIOUS GAINS ARE RETAINED

    Groeller, H., & Sampson, J. (2009). The effect of detraining on muscle strength and cross-sectional area following unilateral resistance training. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. Presentation number 727.

  21. MIXED-MODE STRENGTH TRAINING IS BETTER THAN FREE WEIGHT TRAINING

    Muller, M. S., Bellar, D. B., Muller, S. M., Ryan, E. J., Bliss, M. V., Kim, C.-H., Ida, K., Barkley, J. E., & Glickman, E. L. (2009). Bench press strength gains with and without elastic bands: A 13-week training study. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. Presentation number 730.

  22. PERIMENSTRUAL SYNDROME AFFECTS RESISTANCE PERFORMANCE

    Vaisberg, M., Berenstein, E., di Bella, Z. J., Scatena, D. A., & Lopes, A. C. (2009). Decreased performance in athletes with perimenstrual syndromes. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

  23. BETA ALANINE DOES NOT ALTER RESISTANCE PERFORMANCE, LACTATE PRODUCTION, OR BUFFERING CAPACITY

    Sanchez-Llanes, F., & Terrados, N. (2009). The effect of beta alanine supplementation on multiple bench press performance in judoists. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. Presentation number 1127.

  24. BETA-ALANINE ONLY INFLUENCES STRENGTH AT HIGH LEVELS OF EXERTION

    Willems, M., Ponte, J., & Harris, R. (2009). Effect of beta-alanine supplementation on sustained isometric muscle contractions is intensity dependent. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

  25. RESPIRATORY MUSCLE TRAINING DOES NOT IMPROVE PERFORMANCE IN NORMOXIA OR HYPOXIA

    Keramidas, M. E., Debevec, T., Amon, M., Kounalakis, S. N., & Mekjavic, I. B. (2009). The effect of endurance respiratory muscle training on normoxic and hypoxic performance. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

  26. FREE-WEIGHT TRAINING IS PREFERABLE TO SPECIFIC ACTION TRAINING

    Turner, M., Powell, G., Mayhew, J. L., Smith, A. E., & Kock, A. J. (June 2, 2010). Strength gains from free weight and machine weight training in men of different strength levels. Presentation 1496 at the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; June 2-5.

  27. INTERRUPTIONS TO RESISTANCE TRAINING DO NOT PRODUCE STRENGTH LOSSES

    Ogasawara, R., Yasuda, T., Sakamaki, M., Ozaki, H., & Abe, T. (June 2, 2010). Six weeks resistance training and retraining induced muscle hypertrophy and strength gains in young men. Presentation 1500 at the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; June 2-5.

  28. HIGH-INTENSITY RESISTANCE EXERCISE BLUNTS CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSIVENESS

    Alderman, B. L., & Arent, S. M. (June 02, 2010). Dose-response effects of resistance exercise on cardiovascular responses to laboratory stressors. Presentation 1815 at the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; June 2-5.

  29. CAFFEINE DOES NOT CHANGE MUSCLE ENDURANCE IN RESISTANCE EXERCISE

    Burnett, T. R., Terzi, M., & Astorino, T. A. (2009). Effect of caffeine ingestion on muscle performance during repeated bouts of knee extension and flexion. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. Presentation number 878.

  30. CAFFEINE DOES NOT IMPROVE A TOTAL RESISTANCE WORKOUT

    Jo, E., Martinez, M., Lee, B. E., Coburn, J. W., Matthew, B., Gochioco, M., & Judelson, D. A. (June 03, 2010). Effects of caffeine on resistance exercise performance, mood, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion. Presentation 1915 at the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; June 2-5.

  31. CAFFEINE-CARBOHYDRATE INGESTION IMPROVES RESISTANCE TRAINING PERFORMANCE IN SOME EXERCISES BUT NOT IN OTHERS

    Campbell, B. I., Downing, J., Kilpatrick, M., La Bounty, P., Elkins, A., Williams, S., dos Santos, M. G., Chang, T. Willey, S., & Kreider, R. (June 03, 2010). The effects of a commercially available energy drink on resistance training performance. Presentation 1929 at the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; June 2-5.

  32. POMEGRANATE JUICE FACILITATES STRENGTH DEVELOPMENT RECOVERY IN THE ARMS BUT NOT THE LEGS

    Trombold, J. R., Reinfeld, A. S., Casler, J. R., & Coyle, E. F. (June 03, 2010). Exercise-induced muscle weakness and soreness are attenuated in resistance-trained individuals by pomegranate juice supplementation. Presentation 1931 at the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; June 2-5.

  33. MUSCLE ACTIVATIONS OF A BENCH PRESS ARE SIMILAR AT DIFFERENT LOADS

    Kin Isler, A., Asci. A., & Aritan, S. (2009). Muscle activity does not change in response to different loads during bench press. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

  34. BLOOD FLOW RESTRICTION HEIGHTENS THE EFFECTS OF RESISTANCE TRAINING

    Takada, S., Okita, K., Suga, T., Omokawa, M., Kadoguchi, T., Morita, N., Horiuchi, M., Takahashi, M., Yokota, T., Hirbayashi, K., Kinugawa, S., & Tsutsui, H. (June 03, 2010). High metabolic stress during resistance exercise might provide muscle hypertrophy and strength increase even with low-mechanical stimulus. Presentation 2072 at the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; June 2-5.

  35. SUPERSLOW TRAINING IS NO BETTER THAN TRADITIONAL RESISTANCE TRAINING IN FEMALES

    Kim, E., Dear, A., Ferguson, S. L., & Bemben, M. G. (June 03, 2010). Traditional resistance training versus SuperSlow strength training on strength, flexibility, and aerobic capacity in females. Presentation 2081 at the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; June 2-5.

  36. TWO STRENGTH-TRAINING SESSIONS PRODUCE CHANGES IN MUSCLE FUNCTION

    Patikas, D., Paraschos, I., Bassa, E., Galazoulas, C., Skooufas, D., & Kotzamanidis, C. (2009). The effects of a short-term isometric training program on the neuromuscular function of elite Greek jumpers and long-distance runners. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

  37. INSTABILITY REDUCES FORCE PRODUCTION IN THE SHOULDERS

    Rustad, O., & Seiler, S. (2009). Maximal dynamic force development in the shoulders under stable and unstable conditions. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

  38. CIRCUIT AND TRADITIONAL STRENGTH TRAINING HAVE SIMILAR TRAINING EFFECTS

    Alcaraz, P. E., Perez-Gomez, J., Chavarrias, M., & Blazevich, A. J. (2009). Effects of 8 weeks of heavy resistance circuit training vs. traditional strength training on physical performance and body composition. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

  39. MALE BASKETBALL PLAYERS ARE STRONGER THAN FEMALE BASKETBALL PLAYERS

    Fry, A. C., Hudy, A., Gallagher, P. M., Vardiman, J. P., Kudrna, R. A., Moodie, N. G., McCartney, M. K., & Bustamante, J. J. (2010). Lower body power-load curves for NCAA Division I men’s and women’s collegiate basketball players. Presentation 797 at the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; June 2-5.

  40. NATURAL MOVEMENTS PRODUCE GREATEST GAINS IN AUXILIARY EXERCISE TRAINING

    Padua, D. A., DiStefano, M. J., & Clark, M. A. (2010). Comparison of isolated and integrated training on functional performance measures. Presentation 800 at the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; June 2-5.

  41. FLUID, CONTINUOUS EXERCISES PRODUCE THE HIGHEST WORK VOLUME IN RESISTANCE TRAINING

    Czapla, R., Sforzo, G., & King, D. (2010). Optimizing power output by varying repetition tempo. Presentation 801 at the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; June 2-5.

    APPLICATIONS

  42. SHOULDER STRENGTH AND POSTERIOR RANGE OF MOTION ARE UNRELATED IN BASEBALL PLAYERS

    Moline, M., Laudner, K., & Meister, K. (2008). Correlation between external shoulder rotation strength and posterior shoulder range of motion in professional baseball players. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis. Presentation number 2498.

  43. CORE STABILITY TRAINING IMPROVED HAND-BALL THROWING VELOCITY IN HIGH SCHOOL FEMALES

    Seiler, S., & Saeterbakken, A. (2008). A unique core stability training program improves throwing velocity in female high school athletes. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis. Presentation number 620.

  44. SOME STRENGTH TRAINING VARIABLES HAVE ONLY MINOR RELATIONSHIPS WITH BASEBALL SKILL PERFORMANCES

    Szymanski, D. J., Szymanski, J. M., Brooks, K. A., Braswell, M. T., Britt, A. T., Hsu, H-S., Lowe, H. E., Taylor, E. G., & Weil, K. L. (2009). The relationship between power and lean body mass to sport-specific skills of college baseball players. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. Presentation number 2323.

  45. STRENGTH LOSS IN AN IMMOBILIZED ARM CAN BE PREVENTED

    Farthing, J. P., Krentz, J. R., & Magnus, C. R. (2009). Does strength training the free limb attenuate strength loss during unilateral immobilization? ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. Presentation number 2464.

  46. JUSTIFICATION FOR INSPIRATORY MUSCLE TRAINING IN SPRINT SWIMMERS

    Jakovljevic, D. G., & McConnell, A. K. (2009). Influence of different breathing frequencies on the severity of inspiratory muscle fatigue induced by high-intensity front crawl swimming. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 23, 1169-1174.

  47. ADDITIONAL RESISTANCE TRAINING PRODUCES ADDITIONAL STRENGTH IMPROVEMENTS IN HIGH SCHOOL BASEBALL PLAYERS

    Szymanski, D. J., Szymanski, J. M., Molloy, J. M., & Pascoe, D. D. (2004). Effect of 12 weeks of wrist and forearm training on high school baseball players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 18, 432-440.

  48. STRENGTH AND NEUROLOGICAL TRAINING IMPROVE RUNNING FACTORS IN FEMALE SOCCER PLAYERS

    Grieco, C. R., Greska, E., Lucci, S., Cortes, N., & Onate, J. (June 2, 2010). Effect of neuromuscular training on VO2peak and running economy in Division I Female Soccer Players. Presentation 1495 at the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; June 2-5.

  49. WEIGHTED VEST JUMPING DAMPENS JUMPING PERFORMANCE IN WARM-UPS

    Berning, J. M., Deneke, N., Lawrence, M., Winchell, K., Sevene-Adams, P. G., & Adams K. J. (June 02, 2010). Effect of weighted jump warm-up on vertical jump in Division II Male basketball players. Presentation 1702 at the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; June 2-5.

  50. ELASTIC CORDS IMPROVE JUMPING IN AVERAGE PERFORMERS

    Tran, T. T., Brown, L. E., Coburn, J. W., Lynn, S. K., Dabbs, N. C., Gochioco, M. K., Schick, E. E., Khamoui, A. V., Uribe, B. P., & Noffal, G. J. (June 02, 2010). Effects of different levels of assisted jumping on vertical jump height and relative ground reaction force. Presentation 1705 at the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; June 2-5.

  51. STRENGTH PLUS ENDURANCE TRAINING ALTERS PHYSIOLOGICAL INDICATORS IN CYCLISTS

    Ronnestad, B., Hansen, E. A., & Raastad, T. (2009). Effect of heavy strength training on classical indicators of endurance cycling performance. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

  52. TRAINING ONE LIMB CAN PREVENT STRENGTH LOSS IN THE INJURED OTHER LIMB

    LoRusso, S., Pollock, J., & Gdula, S. (June 03, 2010). Unilateral strength training prevents strength loss in the contralateral limb following bilateral training. Presentation 2091 at the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; June 2-5.

  53. HEAVY RESISTANCE TRAINING COMPROMISES ENSUING SPECIFIC-SPORT TRAINING

    Hakkinen, J. J., Kraemer, W. J., & Gorostiaga, E. M. (2009). Neuromuscular and metabolic fatigue with the same absolute and relative intensity after strength training. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

    POWER

  54. SPEED-CHUTE TRAINING CAN IMPROVE EXPLOSIVE CAPACITIES

    Havenetidis, K., Paradisis, G., Kardaris, D., & Paxinos, T. (June 03, 2010). The effect of resisted sprint training on commonly stretch-shortening cycle actions. Presentation 2159 at the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; June 2-5.

  55. STRENGTH AND POWER ARE ONLY IMPROVED IN THE ACTIVITIES USED TO TRAIN THEM

    Duchateau, J. (2009). Training effects on the characteristics and behavior of human motor units. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

  56. FAST STRENGTH TRAINING MOVEMENTS ARE BETTER FOR FAST AND POWERFUL MOVEMENTS

    LeFavi, R. G., Riemann, B. L., Helton, J. A., & Davis, S. E. (June 03, 2010). Effects of low versus high-speed training on performance variables in high school athletes. Presentation 2083 at the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; June 2-5.

  57. ORDER AND UNDULATING LOAD MANIPULATIONS DO NOT AFFECT PEAK POWER OR THE WORK DONE IN RESISTANCE EXERCISES

    Moir, G. L., Rhoades, M., Witmer, C. A., & Davis, S. E. (2010). The effects of exercise order and load on power output and work during clean pulls. Presentation 2086 at the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; June 2-5.

  58. STRENGTH AND POWER TRAINING HAVE SIMILAR PERFORMANCE EFFECTS

    Lamas, L., Aoki, M. S., Ugrinowitsch, C., Campos, G. E. R., Regazzini, M., Moriscot, A. S., & Tricoli, V. (2010). Expression of genes related to muscle plasticity after strength and power training regimens. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 20, 216–225.

    SPECIFICITY AND EXTENDED EFFECTS

  59. SEGMENTS OF MUSCLE ACTIONS REACT DIFFERENTLY TO THE TYPE OF STRENGTH TRAINING (CONCENTRIC TRAINING IS SPECIFIC)

    Sundstrup, E., Jakobsen, M. D., Krustrup, P., & Aagaard, P. (2009). Effects of progressive heavy-resistance strength training on maximal eccentric and concentric muscle strength. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. Presentation number 725.

  60. WRIST AND FOREARM STRENGTH EXERCISES ARE OF NO VALUE TO BASEBALL HITTING

    Szymanski, D. J., McIntyre, J. S., Szymanski, J. M., Molloy, J. M., Madsen, N. H., & Pascoe, D. D. (2006). Effect of wrist and forearm training on linear bat-end, center of percussion, and hand velocities and on time to ball contact of high school baseball players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 20, 231-240.

  61. RESISTANCE TRAINING IMPROVES RESISTANCE EXERCISES NOT BASEBALL HITTING

    Szymanski, D. J., Szymanski, J. M., Bradford, T. J., Schade, R. L., & Pascoe, D. D.(2007). Effect of twelve weeks of medicine ball training on high school baseball players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 21, 894-901.

  62. EXTRA RESISTANCE TRAINING FURTHER IMPROVES VARIABLES ASSOCIATED WITH THE TRAINING

    Szymanski, D. J., McIntyre, J. S., Szymanski, J. M., Bradford, T. J., Schade, R. L., Madsen, N. H., & Pascoe, D. D. (2007). Effect of torso rotational strength on angular hip, angular shoulder, and linear bat velocities of high school baseball players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 21, 1117-1125.

  63. HEAVY STRENGTH TRAINING PRODUCES SPECIFIC CHANGES BUT DOES NOT ALTER ACTUAL CROSS-COUNTRY SKIING PERFORMANCE

    Losnegard, T., Mikkelsen, K., Ronnestad, B. R., Hallen, J., Rud, B., & Raastad, T. (2009). The effect of heavy strength training on muscle adaptations and performance in elite cross-country skiers. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

  64. RECREATIONAL DISTANCE RUNNERS DO NOT BENEFIT FROM ADDITIONAL STRENGTH TRAINING

    Bergermann, M., & Ferrauti, A. (2009). Effects of whole body strength training on running performance and running economy in recreational runners. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

  65. LEG-STRENGTH IS RELATED TO SPRINTING BUT NOT RUNNING ECONOMY IN SOCCER PLAYERS

    Nymark, B. S., Ronnestad, B., & Raastad, T. (2009). Pre-season correlations between sprint, 1 RM and running economy in professional soccer players. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

  66. HIP-STABILIZATION EXERCISES DO NOT IMPROVE RUNNING ECONOMY

    Dragoo, K. R., Robinson, T. A., & Silvers, W. M. (June 03, 2010). Effects of hip-stabilization exercises on running economy. Presentation 2072 at the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; June 2-5.

  67. WEIGHTED ROPE-JUMPING IMPROVES MEASURES THAT ARE UNRELATED TO VOLLEYBALL PLAYING

    Colakoglu, F. F., Atalay Guzel, N., Karacan, S., & Baltaci, G. (2009). Effects of weighted rope jump training on anaerobic power, speed, flexibility, and agility in adolescent volleyball players. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

  68. SLOW-MOVEMENT ISOKINETIC TRAINING DOES NOT TRANSFER BENEFITS TO FASTER MOVEMENTS

    House, P. D., Smith, D., O'Brien, M., Edwards, S., & Miller, J. (June 03, 2010). The effects of slow velocity isokinetic resistance training on high velocity force output following a brief high velocity familiarization period. Presentation 2084 at the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; June 2-5.

    CREATINE

  69. RESISTANCE TRAINED WOMEN DO NOT RESPOND TO CREATINE

    De Costa Trindade, M. C., Avelar, A., Cyrino, E. S., & Tirapegui, J. (2008). Impact of creatine supplementation and resistance training on indicators of fatigue in women. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis. Presentation number 940.

  70. CREATINE SUPPLEMENTATION INCREASES STRENGTH AND DOES NOT CHANGE BODY COMPOSITION IN MALES

    Conte, M., Percario, S., Teixeira, L. J., & Conte, L. P. (20008). Effects of creatine supplementation and intense resistance training on body composition and muscular strength. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis. Presentation number 941.

  71. CREATINE SUPPLEMENTATION INCREASES REPEATED BOUT RESISTANCE EXERCISE PERFORMANCE

    Stec, M. J., Miles, M. P., & Rawson, E. S. (June 03, 2010). Low-dose creatine supplementation enhances fatigue resistance in the absence of weight gain. Presentation 1918 at the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; June 2-5.

  72. PLYOMETRIC TRAINING IMPROVES STRENGTH IN BOTH GENDERS

    Saez-Saez de Villarreal, E., & Requena, B. (2009). Does plyometric training improve strength performance? A meta-analysis. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

    PLYOMETRICS

  73. FATIGUE FROM PLYOMETRIC TRAINING SHOULD BE COUPLED WITH 24 HOURS OF RECOVERY

    Cook, S. B., Faust, K. F., Ploutz-Snyder, L. L., & Kanaley, J. A. (2008). The effects of an acute bout of plyometrics on muscle fatigue in female athletes. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis. Presentation number 539.

  74. PLYOMETRICS DO NOT ENHANCE THROWING PERFORMANCE

    Gencoglu, C., Aksu, D., Sahin, E., Gulbahar, S., Atest, O., & Bediz, C. S. (2009). Effects of upper extremity plyometrics on throwing velocity and isokinetic muscle strength of shoulder rotators in female handball players. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

  75. SUPERVISED MODERATE PLYOMETRIC TRAINING IMPROVES POWER AND SPEED ACTIVITIES IN BOYS AND GIRLS

    Chen, S., & Weng, C. (2010). Effects of plyometric training on the performance of power and speed in children. Presentation 638 at the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; June 2-5.

  76. PLYOMETRIC TRAINING IMPROVES THROWING VELOCITY

    Carter, A. B., Kaminiski, T. W., Douex Jr., A. T., Knight, C. A., & Richards, J. G. (2007). Effects of high volume upper extremity plyometric training on throwing velocity and functional strength ratios of the shoulder rotators in collegiate baseball players. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 21, 208-215.

    STRETCHING

  77. STATIC STRETCHING INTERFERES WITH RHYTHMIC GYMNASTS' PERFORMANCES

    Di Cagno, A., Baldari, C., Battaglia, C., Emerenziani, G. P., & Guidetti, L. (2008). Influence of static stretching on technical leap scores in rhythmic gymnastics. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis. Presentation number 2115.

  78. AGILITY IMPROVES OVER FOUR WEEKS OF STATIC STRETCHING

    Mahoney, C. E., Coons, J. M., Kim, J, K., Farley, R. S., & Caputo, J. L. (2008). The chronic effects of static and dynamic stretching on agility as measured by the T-test. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis. Presentation number 2119.

  79. STATIC STRETCHING NEGATIVELY IMPACTS ENDURANCE RUNNING PERFORMANCE

    Wilson, J. M., Hornbuckle, L. M., Kim, J., Sommer, B. A., Lee, S., Diah, T., Dalmau, B., Mendez, D., & Panton, L. B. (2008). The effects of static stretching on energy cost and endurance performance during treadmill running. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis. Presentation number 699.

  80. STATIC STRETCHING INTERFERES WITH GOLFING PERFORMANCE

    Gergley, J. C., & Austin, S. F. (2009). Latent effect of passive static stretching on driver clubhead speed, distance, accuracy, and solid contact in male competitive golfers. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. Presentation number 1563.

  81. STATIC STRETCHING DECREASES PEAK TORQUE IN WOMEN BUT NOT IN MEN

    Costa, P. B., Ryan, E. D., Herda, T. J., DeFreitas, J. M., Beck, T. W., & Cramer, J. T. (2009). Acute effects of static stretching on peak torque and the rate of velocity development. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. Presentation number 1567.

  82. DYNAMIC STRETCHING REDUCES ARM ISOMETRIC STRENGTH

    Leone, D. G., Pezarat-Correia, P., Valamatos, M. J., & Fernandes, O. (2009). Acute effects of a low-stretching dynamic protocol in the upper body force production. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. Presentation number 1657.

  83. BALANCE SKILLS NOT AFFECTED BY STRETCHING

    Kokkonen, J., & Nelson, A. G. (2009). Does acute stretching modify a surfer's ability to keep a teetering board horizontal? ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. Presentation number 1848.

  84. EXCESSIVE STRETCHING REDUCES MUSCLE ELASTICITY

    Hoge, K. M., Ryan, E. D., Herda, T. J., Costa, P. B., Walter, A. A., Beck, T. W., Stout, J. S., & Cramer, J. T. (2009). Acute effects of passive stretching on the electromechanical delay. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. Presentation number 1993.

  85. STRETCHING REDUCES DOMS

    Candido, P. Z., Angeli, G., Kirkendall, D., & Barros, T. L. (2009). Analysis of the efficacy of different stretching applications and their relation to delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. Presentation number 2346.

  86. STRETCHING DOES NOT AFFECT A SOCCER KICKING SKILL

    Pius, R., White, R. L., Lai, Q., & Engels, H. J. (2009). Place kicking kinematics following static and dynamic stretching warm-ups in young female soccer players. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. Presentation number 2769.

  87. ACUTE PASSIVE STRETCHING AFFECTS POWER AND HIGH-INTENSITY AEROBIC PERFORMANCE

    Esposito, F., Limontal, E., Cè, E., & Veicsteinas, A. (2009). Effect of acute passive stretching on maximum aerobic power and time to exhaustion. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. Presentation number 742.

  88. ACUTE STATIC STRETCHING DOES NOT IMPAIR PLANTAR FLEXION

    Cannavan, D., Coleman, D. R., & Blazevich, A. J. (2009). Acute effects of static stretching on plantar-flexor moment and tendon stiffness. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. Presentation number 783.

  89. STATIC STRETCHING HAS A MINOR NEGATIVE EFFECT ON JUMPING AND SPRINTING PERFORMANCE

    Markovic, G., Simic, L., & Mikulic, P. (2009). A meta-analysis to determine the acute effects of static stretching on jumping and sprinting performance. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. Presentation number 800.

  90. DYNAMIC STRETCHING IMPROVES AGILITY

    Van Gelder, L. H., & Bartz, S. (2009). The effects of stretching on agility performance. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. Presentation number 804.

  91. DIFFERENT STRETCHING FORMS AND STRETCHING IN GENERAL HAVE NEGATIVE EFFECTS ON SOME ACTIVITIES BUT NOT ON OTHERS

    Dent, J., O'Brien, J., Bushman, T., Abel, K., & Janot, J. (2009). Acute and prolonged effects of static stretching and dynamic warm-up on muscular power and strength. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. Presentation number 805.

  92. DYNAMIC STRETCHING IS MILDLY DETRIMENTAL TO RUNNING

    Sommer, B. A., Wilson, J. M., Zourdos, M. C., Hornbuckle, L. M., Park, Y., Lee, S., & Panton, L. B. (2009). The effects of dynamic stretching on energy cost during a thirty-minute time trial. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. Presentation number 806.

  93. DYNAMIC STRETCHING DOES NOT HINDER RUNNING PERFORMANCE

    Zourdos, M. C., Wilson, J. M., Sommer, B. A., Hornbuckle, L. M., Park, Y., Lee, S., Panton, L. B., & Kim, J. (2009). The effects of dynamic stretching on endurance performance during a 30-minute time trial. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. Presentation number 807.

  94. PNF STRETCHING OF ONE LIMB INCREASES THE RANGE OF MOTION IN THE CONTRALATERAL LIMB

    Sheard, P. W., Pierozynski, L. C., & Paine, T. J. (2009). Contralateral changes in range of motion following unilateral proprioceptive neuromuscular stretching. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

  95. PNF STRETCHING NEGATIVELY AFFECTS FORCE PRODUCTION

    Moe, V., & Aune, T. K. (209). The effect of stretching on muscle force production in hamstring muscles. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

  96. STATIC STRETCHING NEGATIVELY CHANGES MUSCLE-TENDON PROPERTIES

    Kato, E. (2009). A 6-week stretching program alters mechanical and architectural properties of the gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

  97. STATIC STRETCHING INCREASES INTERMITTENT EXERCISE PERFORMANCE

    Miyahara, Y., Mieda, K., & Ebashi, H. (2009). Effects of static stretching on prolonged intermittent exercise performance. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

  98. STATIC STRETCHING DECREASES FOR DEVELOPMENT FOR UP TO 30 MINUTES

    Pezarat-Correia, P., Leone, D., Valamatos, M. J., & Fernandes, O. (2009). Acute effects of a low-stretching static protocol in the upper body force production. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

  99. STATIC STRETCHING DOES NOT DEPRESS JUMPING PERFORMANCE IN MALES OR FEMALES

    Moneghan, K. D., Bemis, M. J., & Fradkin, A. J. (2010). The effects of stretching on vertical jump performance. Presentation 1706 at the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; June 2-5.

  100. DYNAMIC STRETCHING REDUCES MUSCLE FATIGUE IN FEMALES

    Kuno-Mizumura, M. (2009). The effect of dynamic stretching on muscle performance after fatiguing exercise. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

  101. THE EFFECTS OF STRETCHING ARE EQUIVOCAL

    McHugh, M. P., & Cosgrave, C. H. (2010). To stretch or not to stretch: the role of stretching in injury prevention and performance. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 20, 169–181.

  102. STATIC STRETCHING INTERFERES WITH PERFORMANCE WHILE DYNAMIC STRETCHING IMPROVES PERFORMANCE

    Sekir, U., Arabaci, R., Akova, B., & Kadagan, S. M. (2010). Acute effects of static and dynamic stretching on leg flexor and extensor isokinetic strength in elite women athletes. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 20, 268–281.

    RELATED FACTORS

  103. ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES ALTER THE RESPONSIVENESS TO STRENGTH TRAINING DURING THE FOLLICULAR AND LUTEAL PHASES OF MENSTRUATION

    Han, A., Sung, E., Hinrichs, T., & Platen, P. (2009). Strength training and the menstrual cycle: Effects of follicular and luteal phase-based training on muscular strength and muscle diameter in subjects with oral contraception. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

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