Szymanski, D. J., Szymanski, J. M., Molloy, J. M., & Pascoe, D. D. (2004). Effect of 12 weeks of wrist and forearm training on high school baseball players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 18, 432-440.

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This study examined the effect of 12 weeks of wrist and forearm training on male high school baseball players (N = 43). Ss were tested for 10 repetition maximum wrist barbell flexion, wrist barbell extension, dominant and non-dominant hand-forearm supination, dominant and non-dominant forearm pronation, dominant and non-dominant wrist radial deviation, dominant and non-dominant wrist ulnar deviation, dominant and non-dominant grip strength, and a 3 RM parallel squat and bench press. Group 1 (N = 23) and Group 2 (N = 20), randomly assigned by a stratified sampling technique, performed the same resistance exercises while training three days a week for 12 weeks according to a stepwise periodized model. Group 2 performed additional wrist and forearm exercises three days a week for 12 weeks to determine if additional wrist and forearm training provided further wrist and forearm strength improvements. All wrist and forearm strength variables were measured before and after 12 weeks of training. The 3 RM parallel squat and bench press were measured at 0 and after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of training.

Both groups significantly increased wrist and forearm strength except 10 RM dominant and non-dominant forearm supination for Group 1. Group 2 showed statistically greater improvements in all wrist and forearm strength variables than did Group 1 except for dominant and non-dominant grip strength. Predicted 1 RM parallel squat and bench press increased significantly after weeks 4, 8, and 12 for both groups.

Implication. A 12-week stepwise periodized training program can significantly increase wrist, forearm, parallel squat, and bench press strength in participants. Additional wrist and forearm exercises produce further strength gains.

[The fact that the Ss in this study were baseball players is incidental to the findings. No inferences can be made about any facet of baseball performance because none was studied.]

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