Volume 11(1): September, 2005

STRENGTH TRAINING 4

This first issue of Volume 11 of Coaching Science Abstracts reviews articles concerned with strength and resistance training and stretching. The first issue of strength training can be accessed as Volume 2(1), the second as Volume 5(1), and the third as Volume 8(1). These latest researches indicate that many of today's strength training practices are incorrect and the benefits from such training is greatly exaggerated.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

    GENERAL THEORY

  1. PREPARATORY PHASE ACTIVITY IS IMPORTANT FOR STRENGTH MOVEMENTS

    Walshe, A. D., Wilson, G. J., & Ettema, G. J. (1998). Stretch-shorten cycle compared with isometric pre-load: Contributions to enhanced muscular performance. Journal of Applied Physiology, 84, 97-106.

  2. ECCENTRIC AND CONCENTRIC CONTRACTION TRAINING HAVE SIMILAR EFFECTS

    Nosaka, K., & Newton, M. (2002). Concentric or eccentric training effect on eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34, 63-69.

  3. ECCENTRIC TRAINING PRODUCES FASTER STRENGTH GAINS THAN NORMAL TRAINING

    Hortobagyi, T., Devita, P., Money, J., & Barrier, J. (2001). Effects of standard and eccentric overload strength training in young women. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33, 1206-1212.

  4. STRENGTH GAINS ARE LARGELY NEURAL

    Aagaard, P., Simonsen, E. B., Andersen, J. L., Magnusson, S. P., & Dyhre-Poulson, P. (2002). Neural adaptation to resistance training evidenced by changes in evoked V-wave and H reflex responses. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 653.

  5. STRENGTH CHANGES DO NOT AUTOMATICALLY TRANSFER TO COMPLEX MOVEMENTS

    Toumi, H., & Best, T. (2004). Muscle plasticity following plyometric and combined (plyometric and resistance) training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 1153.

  6. EARLY STRENGTH GAINS ARE RETAINED WITHOUT TRAINING

    Sasaki, K., Teramoto, K., Ohyama, K. B., Kuno, S., Okada, M., Katasuta, S., & Phmori, H. (2002). Early phase adaptations to resistance training were maintained after 8 weeks of detraining. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1618.

  7. REPETITION FAILURE IS THE PRINCIPAL STIMULUS FOR STRENGTH DEVELOPMENT

    Drinkwater, E. J., Lawton, T. W., Lindsell, R. P., Pyne, D. B., Hunt, P. H., & McKenna, M. J. (2004). Repetition failure is a key determinant of strength development in resistance training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 395.

  8. EXERCISING MUSCLES IN A GROUP FUNCTION DIFFERENTLY

    MacGillis, C. J., Hunter, S. K., Lepers, R., & Enoka, R. M. (2002). Activation differs among the elbow flexor muscles during a submaximal fatiguing contraction. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 656.

  9. A VARIETY OF MOVEMENT PATTERNS PRODUCE THE SAME MOVEMENT OUTCOME IN REPETITIOUS EXERCISE

    Emter, C. A., Pfeiffer, R. P., McChesney, J. W., & Harris, C. (2002). Muscle recruitment strategies in the lower extremity during a hang-drop deceleration maneuver. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 658.

  10. WOMEN HAVE RELATIVELY GREATER ECCENTRIC STRENGTH THAN MEN

    Hollander, D. B., Kraemer, R. R., Kilpatrick, M. W., Ramadan, Z. G., Reeves, G. W., Francois, M., Durand, R. J., & Tryniecki, J. T. (2004). Eccentric and concentric strength differences in men and women. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 2384.

  11. ECCENTRIC STRENGTH EXERCISES ARE PERFORMED DIFFERENTLY BY WOMEN WHEN COMPARED TO MEN

    Hubal, M. J., Clarkson, P. M., & Rubinstein, S. (2003). Gender differences in central activation during maximal eccentric exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 562.

  12. STRENGTH TRAINING PRODUCES A GENDER-SPECIFIC POSTEXERCISE TRIGLYCERIDE RESPONSE

    Kendrick, K. H., Harvey, J. F., & Titlow, L. W. (2003). Acute strength training and postmeal triglycerides: A gender comparison. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1129.

  13. STRENGTH TRAINING PROMOTES NEUROLOGICAL CHANGES THAT ARE GENDER SPECIFIC

    Visich, P., Thompson, B., & Gordon, P. (2003). Gender differences in strength gain following a resistance training program in the upper arm. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1620.

  14. RESISTANCE EXERCISE VOLUME AFFECTS METABOLIC AND HORMONAL RESPONSES

    Ratamess, N. A., Kraemer, W. J., Volek, J. S., Maresh, C. M., Van Heest, J. L., Rubin, M. R., French, D. N., Sharman, M. S., Vescovi, J. D., & Silvestre, R. (2004). Effects of heavy resistance exercise volume on post-exercise androgen receptor content in resistance-trained men. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 1659.

  15. RESISTANCE EXERCISE RECOVERY USUALLY OCCURS WITHIN TWO HOURS

    Henley, M. O., Irving, B. A., & Gaesser, G. A. (2004). Effect of single- and multiple-set resistance exercise on postexercise energy expenditure. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 1896.

  16. ANY ECCENTRIC EXERCISE AFFECTS SUBSEQUENT PERFORMANCE SIMILARLY

    Howatson, G., van Someren, K. A., & Hortobagyi, T. (2004). The repeat bout effect following initial low and high volume eccentric exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 2195.

    STRENGTH TRAINING FACTORS

  17. MODERATE DEHYDRATION DOES NOT AFFECT STRENGTH

    Renna, B. F., & Coles, M. G. (2002). Exercise-induced hypohydration and isokinetic muscular strength and endurance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 635.

  18. UNTRAINED INDIVIDUALS CHANGE STRENGTH SIMILARLY IRRESPECTIVE OF TRAINING PROTOCOL

    Haddock, B. L., Hoppmarshak, H., Blix, G., Mason, J. & Smith, S. (2002). The effect of varying resistance training programs on strength, lean body mass, and metabolism. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 708.

  19. MAXIMUM STRENGTH IS INFLUENCED BY PRECEDING ACTIVITIES

    Masamoto, N., Larason, R., Gates, T., Alemany, J., & Faigenbaum, A. D. (2002). Effects of different testing protocols on the expression of maximal strength in trained male athletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(5), Supplement abstract 848.

  20. CHILDREN INCREASE STRENGTH WITH ONE TRAINING SESSION PER WEEK

    Hetrick, A., Maziekas, M., Cole, P., & LeMura, L. (2002). High versus low frequence resistance training in 7- to 10-year-old children. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1614.

  21. STRENGTH TRAINING AND GROWTH BOTH CONTRIBUTE TO STRENGTH IMPROVEMENTS IN PREPUBESCENT BOYS

    Fontonura, A. S., Schneider, P., & Meyer, F. (2003). The effect of detraining from strength training on prepubescent boys. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 2062.

  22. STRENGTH TRAINING PROGRAMS SHOULD OCCUR BEFORE ENDURANCE TRAINING PROGRAMS

    Bell, J. B., Petersen, S. R., Wessel, J., Bagnall, K., & Quinney, H. A. (1991). Adaptations to endurance and low velocity resistance training performed in a sequence. Canadian Journal of Sport Sciences, 16, 186-192.

  23. EARLY STRENGTH ADAPTATION REQUIRES SEVERAL TRAINING SESSIONS PER WEEK

    Sorichter, S., Mair, J., Koller, A., Secnik, P. Parrak, V., Haid, C., Muller, E. & Puschendorf, B. (1997). Muscular adaptation and strength during the early phase of eccentric training: Influence of the training frequency. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29, 1646-1652.

  24. BODY MASS IS INFLUENCED BY CHO INGESTION IN STRENGTH TRAINING

    Rozenek, R., Ward, P., Long, S. & Garhammer, J. (2002). Effects of high-calorie supplements on body composition and muscular strength following resistance training. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 42, 340-347.

  25. PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH STRENGTH INCREASES

    Vukovich, M. D., Tausz, S. M., Ballard, T. L., Stevermer, C. L., Gerlach, A. M., Vander Weerd, M. K., Binkley, T. L., & Specker, B. L. (2004). Effect of protein supplementation during a 6-month strength and conditioning program on muscular strength. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 1368.

  26. GROWTH HORMONE RESPONDS TO RESISTANCE TRAINING

    Goto, K., Ishii, N., Kaneko, F., Kizuka, T., & Takamatsu, K. (2004). Relationship between magnitude of acute hormonal responses and muscular adaptations during resistance training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 2085.

  27. STRENGTH TRAINING ALTERS SERUM CORTISOL BUT NOT TESTOSTERONE

    Carlson, L. A., DeBruin, J., Tuckow, A. P., Marelli, B. S., & Headley, S. (2004). Testosterone and cortisol responses following resistance exercise and carbohydrate supplementation. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 2086.

    Sets

  28. MAXIMALLY FATIGUING SINGLE SET OF STRENGTH EXERCISES RESULTS IN SIGNIFICANT BODY COMPOSITION CHANGES

    Fincher II, G. E. (2003). The effect of high intensity resistance training on body composition among collegiate football players. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1793.

  29. NO REAL DISTINCTION IN EFFECTS BETWEEN SINGLE AND MULTIPLE SETS

    Wolfe, B. L., LeMura, L. M., Razzaghi, M., & Szmedra, L. (2002). A quantitative analysis of single vs multiple sets in resistance training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1123.

  30. SINGLE SETS AND EXHAUSTION IMPROVE STRENGTH

    Fincher II, G. E., & Goodson, T. L. (2002). The effect of high intensity resistance training on isotonic strength among female collegiate basketball players. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1124.

  31. ONE IS AS GOOD AS THREE SETS IN EXPERIENCED RESISTANCE TRAINERS

    Gomes, P. S., de Paula, A. M., Diogo, C. E., de Freitas, M., Rodrigues, F., & Pereira, M. I. (2003). Effects of single and multiple sets resistance training on strength gains of previously experienced adults. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1621.

  32. ONE SET IS AS GOOD AS THREE SETS IN WEIGHT TRAINING

    Baker, J. S., & Cooper, S. M. (2004). Strength and body composition: single versus triple set resistance training programs. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 394.

    APPLICATIONS

  33. EXPLOSIVE-STRENGTH TRAINING IMPROVES EXPLOSIVE ACTIVITIES IN SOCCER

    Gorostiaga, E. M., Izquierdo, M., Ruesta, M., Iribarren, J., Gonzalez-Badillo, J. J., & Ibanez, J. (2002). Effects of explosive type strength training on force production, sprint performance, endurance and serum hormones in soccer players. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 704.

  34. FAST VELOCITY IS BETTER THAN SLOW VELOCITY STRENGTH TRAINING

    Gomes, P. S., & Pereira, M. I. (2002). Effects of testing velocity on total resistance work at submaximal load. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(5), Supplement abstract 849.

  35. WHEN LOW INTENSITY FOLLOWS HIGH INTENSITY STRENGTH TRAINING, STRENGTH IMPROVES

    Goto, K., Nagasawa, S., Yanagisawa, O., Kaneko, F., Kizuka, T., & Takamatsu, K. (2002). Addition of low intensity resistance exercise to high intensity resistance exercise increases muscular strength. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1122.

  36. RESISTANCE AND SOCCER TRAINING PRODUCES PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENTS

    Zebis, M. K., Bangsbo, J. Suetta, C., Crameri, R., Kjaer, M., & Aagaard, P. (2002). Effects of heavy resistance training on muscle profile, strength and soccer performance in female elite soccer players. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1126.

  37. STRENGTH CYCLE TRAINING IS INEFFECTIVE FOR STRENGTH ADAPTATION

    Van Zant, R. S., & Bouillon, L. E. (2002). Muscular strength responses to strength cycle ergometer training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1127.

  38. STRENGTH CYCLE TRAINING IS INEFFECTIVE FOR AEROBIC ADAPTATION

    Bouillon, L. E., & Van Zant, R. S. (2002). Aerobic response to strength cycle ergometer training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1128.

  39. PRE-MOVEMENT ISOMETRIC CONTRACTIONS IMPROVE REACTION TIMES

    Etnyre, B., & Kinugasa, T. (2002). Postcontraction influences on reaction time. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 73, 271-281.

  40. IN AN ANNUAL PLAN, STRENGTH TRAINING SHOULD PRECEDE ENDURANCE TRAINING

    Bell, G. J., Petersen, S. R., Wessel, J., Bagnall, K., & Quinney, H. A. (1991). Adaptations to endurance and low velocity resistance training performed in a sequence. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Science, 16, 186-192.

  41. LEG DRIVE AND TRUNK SWING ARE EQUALLY IMPORTANT IN ROWING FORCE PRODUCTION

    Tachibana, K., Miyazaki, J., Yashiro, K., Tani, T., Usui, C., & Higuchi, M. (2003). Relationships between partial motion power during rowing and muscle cross-sectional areas. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 324.

  42. VARIED RESISTANCE TRAINING IS BENEFICIAL FOR WOMEN TENNIS PLAYERS

    Kraemer, W. J., Ratamess, N., Fry, A. C., Triplett-McBride, T., Koziris, P., Bauer, J. A., Lynch, J. M., & Fleck, S. J. (2000). Influence of resistance training volume and periodization on physiological performance adaptations in collegiate women tennis players. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 28, 626-633.

  43. HIP STRENGTH TRAINING IMPROVES SPRINT AND AGILITY PERFORMANCES

    Deane, R. S., Chow, J. W., Tillman, M. D., & Fournier, K. A. (2003). Hip flexor strength training can improve sprint and shuttle run performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 2250.

  44. TWO FORMS OF COUNTERMOVEMENT JUMPING IMPROVE JUMPING PERFORMANCE

    Basgier, M. K., Karkoska, B. W., & Grandjean, P. W. (2004). The effectiveness of half- vs. parallel-squat countermovement jump training on power indices in collegiate swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 398.

    POWER

  45. ACCELERATION TRAINING WITH 30% 1 RM LOAD IS BEST FOR POWER

    Magu, B., Weiss, L. W., Fry, A. C., Bondurant, B. W., Chiu, L. Z., Schilling, B. K., Buchanan, K., & Scales, C. (2002). Association between vertical jumping distance and DCER squatting peak power. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1554.

  46. MAXIMUM POWER OUTPUT IS AT 1 RM FOR OLYMPIC LIFTS

    Journell, T. W., Pata, C. R., & Barrett, B. S. (2004). Optimal power clean resistance for producing maximal power output. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 1434.

  47. FAST ISOKINETIC MOVEMENTS MOST RELATED TO MAXIMAL POWER OUTPUT

    Tobol, R., Peiffer, J., Garcia, B., Talanian, J., Faria, I. E., Quintana, R., & Parker, D. L. (2003). Relationship between isokinetic strength and maximal power output in trained cyclists. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1503.

  48. FORCE AND POWER DECLINE DURING A COLLEGIATE FOOTBALL GAME

    Newton, R. U., Hoffman, J. R., Robertson, M., Maresh, C. M., Kang, J., & Kraemer, W. J. (2002). Changes in maximal power and force over the course of a competitive college football game. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 707.

  49. POWER IMPROVES AFTER POWER TRAINING, NOT STRENGTH TRAINING

    Fabian, N. M., Berning, J. M., Durham, M., Kipp, R., Wilson, M., & Adams, K. J. (2002). Consecutive strength and power mesocycles: The effects on power-endurance in strength trained women. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1109.

  50. POWER AND AGILITY ARE ONLY IMPROVED WITH POWER TRAINING, NOT WITH TRADITIONAL STRENGTH TRAINING

    Adams, K. J., Berning, J. M., Fabian, N., Durham, M., Harris, C., & Debeliso, M. (2002). Linear strength and power mesocycles - effects on agility and power in strength trained women. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1613.

  51. MUSCULAR POWER DECLINES WITH AGE AND IS GREATER IN FEMALES

    Anton, M. H., & Tanaka, H. (2003). Reductions in physiological functional capacity with age: Insight from powerlifting and weightlifting performance records. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1786.

  52. PRIOR CONTRACTILE ACTIVITY DOES NOT INCREASE SUBSEQUENT POWER

    Harris, C., Dolny, D., Browder, K., Adams, K. J., & DeBeliso, M. (2004). The effect of prior contractile activity on power output. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 2379.

    TESTING

  53. STANDARD POWER MEASURES NOT RELATED TO SPRINTING OR AGILITY

    Young, W. B., James, R., & Montgomery, I. (2002). Is muscle power related to running speed with changes of direction? Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 42, 282-288.

  54. BASIC POWER, STRENGTH, AND ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASURES ARE NOT RELATED TO SPRINT RUNNING

    Kukolj, M., Ropret, R., Ugarkovic, D., & Jaric, S. (1999). Anthropometric, strength, and power predictors of sprinting performance. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 39, 120-122.

    SPECIFICITY AND EXTENDED EFFECTS

  55. A FAILURE TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE STRENGTH

    Shucavage, J. S., Nguyen, M. M., Valerio, T. A., Armillei, R. J., Casey, C. M., Clarke, J. W., Winzek, M. W., Clovey, G. L., Paradis, C. A., & Szmedra, L. (2002). Effect of single versus multiple-set resistance training on muscular strength following short-term training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1121.

  56. STRENGTH TRAINING ONLY IMPROVES STRENGTH TRAINING ACTIVITIES IN SWIMMERS

    Breed, R. V., Young, W. B., & McElroy, G. K. (September, 2000). The effect of a resistance-training program on the grab, swing, and track starts in swimming. 2000 Pre-Olympic Congress in Sports Medicine and Physical Education: International Congress on Sport Science. Brisbane, Australia. [On line at http://www.ausport.gov.au/fulltext/2000/preoly/ abs325b.htm]. -

  57. STRENGTH NOT RELATED TO POWER IN THE JUMP SQUAT

    Dugan, E. L., Robertson, K. M., Hasson, C. J., Shim, J., Doan, B. K., Hakkinen, K., Kraemer, W. J., & Newton, R. U. (2002). Strength factors related to maximal power output during jump squats with an optimal load. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 190.

  58. PATTERNS OF MUSCULAR ACTIVATION ARE SIMILAR BETWEEN SUPPORTED AND UNSUPPORTED RESISTANCE EXERCISES

    Mookerjee, S., Strohecker, K. A., Cole, P., & Armillei, R. J. (2002). Comparison of EMG activity of the elbow flexors during a supported versus unsupported isotonic arm curl. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 703.

  59. MECHANICS CHANGE BUT ACTIVATION IS CONSISTENT IN VARIOUS SQUAT JUMPS

    Sleivert, G. C., Esliger, D. W., & Bourque, P. J. (2002). The neuromechanical effects of varying relative load in a maximal squat jump. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 705.

  60. ISOMETRIC TRAINING IMPROVES ACTIVATION AND IS LIMB-SPECIFIC

    Smith, D. B., Housh, T. J., Johnson, G. O., Evetovich, T. K.,Ebersole, K. T., Rana, S. R., & Bull, A. J. (2003). Mechanomyographic, electromyographic, and peak torque responses to isometric strength training of the vastus lateralis. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 803.

  61. CONTRIVED HYPOXIA DOES NOT IMPROVE ENDURANCE STRENGTH TRAINING

    Friedman, B., Kinscherf, R., Borisch, S., & Bartsch, P. (2003). Effects of strength endurance training in severe normobaric hypoxia on muscle structure and gene expression. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 890.

  62. STRENGTH TRAINING DOES NOT IMPROVE ACL DYNAMICS IN LANDING

    English, K. L., Amonette, W. E., Babington, D. F., Johnston, L. J., Dupler, T. L., & Wise, D. D. (2003). Closed and open kinetic chain strength training does not reduce landing forces in female athletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1465.

  63. RESISTANCE TRAINING INEFFECTIVE FOR FEMALE ROWERS

    Koesterer, T. J., Mieggs, R. A., Hyland, P. J., Peterson, A. J., Braithwaite, R., & MacConnie, S. E. (2003). The effects of strength versus endurance resistance training programs on performance of female crew athletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1631.

  64. STRENGTH TRAINING DOES NOT IMPROVE CYCLING PERFORMANCE

    Jackson, N., Hickey, M., Reiser II, R., Hutcheson, K., & Melby, C. (2004). Maximum strength versus strength endurance resistance training: Effects on the performance of cyclists. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 396.

  65. RESISTANCE TRAINING NEGATIVELY IMPACTS THROWING ACCURACY

    Nelson, V. R., Multer, C. E., & Snyder, A. R. (2004). The immediate effects of resistance training on athletic performance in softball players. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5),Supplement abstract 1141.

    CREATINE

  66. CREATINE PLUS WHEY PRODUCES SIGNIFICANT STRENGTH AND SIZE GAINS

    Cribb, P. J., Williams, A. D., Hayes, A., & Carey, M. F. (2003). The effect of whey isolate, creatine, and resistance training on muscle fiber characteristics, strength, and body composition. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 2239.

    PLYOMETRICS

  67. PLYOMETRICS SHOULD NOT BE USED DURING THE COMPETITIVE PHASE

    Luebbers, P. E., Hulver, M. W., Thyfault, J. P., Carper, M. J., Lockwood, R. H., & Potteiger, J. A. (2003). Effects of plyometric training and recovery on vertical jump performance and anaerobic power. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1514.

  68. PLYOMETRICS ONLY IMPROVES POWER

    Cheng, C. F., Lin, J. C., & Lin, L. C. (2003). Influences of plyometric training on power and power-endurance in high school basketball players. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 2063.

  69. PLYOMETRICS INCREASE JUMPING ABILITY IN ADOLESCENT MALES

    Matavulj, D., Kukolj, M., Ugarhovic, D., Tihanyi, J., & Jaric, S. (2001). Effects of plyometric training on jumping performance in junior basketball players. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 41, 159-164.

  70. AQUATIC PLYOMETRICS DOES NOT IMPROVE SWIMMERS’ PERFORMANCES

    Wilson, M., Adams, K. J., & Stamford, B. A. (2004). Aquatic plyometrics and the freestyle flip turn. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 1432.

  71. PLYOMETRIC TRAINING ONLY AFFECTS HIGHER END RUNNING PERFORMANCES

    Saunders, P. U., Pyne, D. B., Telford, R. D., Peltola, E. M., Cunningham, R. B., & Hawley, J. A. (2004). Nine Weeks of Plyometric Training Improves Running Economy in Highly Trained Distance Runners. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 1745.

    STRETCHING

  72. STRETCHING DOES NOT AFFECT LOW-EFFORT ACCURACY MOVEMENTS

    Knudson, D., Mache, M., & Kotte, J. (2004). Stretching has no effect on free throw shooting accuracy. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 1433.

  73. PROBLEMS WITH STRETCHING MYTHS AND THEORY

    Wilkinson, M., & Williams, A. (2003). Too much of a good thing? Why increased joint flexibility may damage your distance performance. Peak Performance, 175, 5-6.

  74. STRETCHING REDUCES FORCE PRODUCTION

    Behm, D. G., Button, D. C., & Butt, J. C. (2001). Factors affecting force loss with prolonged stretching. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology, 26, 262-272.

  75. ACUTE STRETCHING REDUCES APPLIED MUSCLE STRENGTH

    Nelson, A. G., & Kokkonen, J. (2001). Acute ballistic muscle stretching inhibits maximal strength performance. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 72, 415-419.

  76. STRETCHING REDUCES PERFORMANCE CAPABILITY

    Evetovich, T. K., Nauman, N. J., Conley, D. S., & Todd, J. B. (2003). The effect of static stretching of the biceps brachii on torque, electromyography, and mechanomyography. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 2057.

  77. STRETCHING REDUCES THROWING ABILITY

    Noffal, G. J., Knudson, D., & Brown, L. (2004). Effects of stretching the upper limb on throwing speed and isokinetic shoulder torques. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 937.

  78. STATIC STRETCHING IMPAIRS POWER AND STRENGTH PERFORMANCE

    Fry, A. C., McLellan, E., Weiss, L. W., & Rosato, F. D. (2003). The effects of static stretching on power and velocity during the bench press exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1460.

  79. TOO MUCH FLEXIBILITY CAN BE DETRIMENTAL TO RUNNING ECONOMY

    Jones, A. M. (2002). Running economy is negatively related to sit-and-reach test performance in international-standard distance runners. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 23, 40-43.

  80. MUSCLE AND JOINT STIFFNESS IS ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED RUNNING ECONOMY

    Craib, M. W., Mitchell, V. A., Fields, K. B., Cooper, T. R., Hopewell, R., & Morgan, D. W. (1996). The association between flexibility and running economy in sub-elite male distance runners. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 28, 737-743.

  81. STRETCHING DOES NOT REDUCE MUSCLE SORENESS OR PREVENT INJURY

    Herbert, R. D., & Gabriel, M. (2002). Effects of stretching before and after exercising on muscle soreness and risk of injury: systematic review. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 325, 468-470.

  82. DO NOT STRETCH BEFORE EXPLOSIVE ACTIVITIES

    Young, W. B., & Behm, D. G. (2003). Effects of running, static stretching and practice jumps on explosive force production and jumping performance. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 43, 21-27.

  83. CONTRACT-RELAX STRETCHING IS BETTER THAN BALLISTIC STRETCHING FOR IMPROVING FLEXIBILITY

    Wallin, D., Bjorn, E., Grahan, R. & Nordenborg, T. (1985). Improvement of muscle flexibility: A comparison between two techniques. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 13, 263-268.

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