Volume 14(1): September, 2008

STRENGTH TRAINING 5

This first issue of Volume 14 of Coaching Science Abstracts reviews articles concerned with strength and resistance training and stretching. The first issue of strength training can be accessed as Volume 2(1), the second as Volume 5(1), the third as Volume 8(1), and the fourth as Volume 11(1). These latest researches indicate that many of today's strength training practices are incorrect and the benefits from such training is greatly exaggerated.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

  1. ORIGINAL ARTICLE ABOUT PROGRESSIVE RESISTANCE TRAINING AND THE SPECIFICITY OF STRENGTH TRAINING

    DeLorme, T. L. (1945). Restoration of muscle power by heavy-resistance exercises. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 27, 265-647.

  2. HEAVY STRENGTH TRAINING DAMAGES MUSCLES

    McArdle, W. D., Katch, F. I., & Katch, V. L. (2004). Exercise physiology (5th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  3. IMPROVING STRENGTH

    McArdle, W. D., Katch, F. I., & Katch, V. L. (2004). Exercise physiology (5th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  4. NEUROMUSCULAR TRAINING PRODUCES MORE STRENGTH AND MUSCULAR ENDURANCE GAINS THAN WEIGHT TRAINING

    Barrett, D. D. (2006). Effects of neuromuscular training and resistance training on muscle strength and endurance development in children. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1485.

  5. EXERCISE-INDUCED MUSCLE INJURY ELEVATES AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC METABOLISM

    Corona, B. T., Green, M. S., Doyle, J. A., Rupp, J. C., & Ingalls, C. P. (2006). Exercise-induced muscle injury results in elevations in aerobic and anaerobic metabolism during submaximal treadmill running. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1523.

  6. ANY STRENGTH TRAINING IMPROVES THE TRAINING ACTIVITIES

    Nelson, J., & Termizan, D. (2006). The effect of complex training in the strength phase: College football players. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1613.

  7. POSTACTIVATION POTENTIATION NOT INFLUENCED BY TRAINING EXPERIENCE

    Batista, M., Tricoli, V., & Ugrinowitsch, C. (2006). The influence of strength training experience on explosive strength potentiation. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1833.

  8. POSTURAL CONTROL VARIES WITH TIME OF DAY

    Gribble, P., tucker, W. S., & White, P. A. (2006). The effects of time of day on static and dynamic postural control. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 2407.

  9. MAXIMAL MUSCULAR EFFORTS ARE GOVERNED BY MOVEMENT PATTERNS AND DO NOT INVOLVE THE TOTAL MUSCLE

    Gorgey, A. S., Mahoney, E. T., Kendall, T., & Dudley, G. A. (2006). Assuming recruitment of an entire muscle underestimates specific tension. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 721.

  10. RESISTANCE TRAINING INCREASES POSSIBILITY OF A POSITIVE DRUG TEST

    Kraemer, W. J., & Ratamess, N. A. (2005). Hormonal responses and adaptations to resistance exercise and training. Sports Medicine, 35, 339-361.

    STRENGTH TRAINING FACTORS

  11. ANDROSTENEDIOL CHANGES BLOOD HORMONES BUT DOES NOT ENHANCE PERFORMANCE

    Brown, G. A., Drouin, J. M., & McKenzie, D. (2005). Resistance exercise does not change the hormonal response to sublingual androstenediol intake. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37(5), Supplement abstract 217.

  12. STEROIDS INCREASE THE SIZE OF MUSCLES WHILE HYPERTROPHIC HEAVY RESISTANCE EXERCISE PRODUCES SPECIFIC AND LARGE EFFECTS

    D’Antona, G., Lanfranconi, F., Pellegrino, M. A., Brocca, L., Adami, R., Rossi, R., Moro, G., Miotti, D., Canepari, M., Bottinelli, R. (2006). Skeletal muscle hypertrophy and structure and function of skeletal muscle fibers in male body builders. Journal of Physiology, 570(Pt 3), 611-627.

  13. STRENGTH IMPROVEMENT FROM EXOGENOUS TESTOSTERONE ONLY COMES FROM HIGH DOSES

    Bhasin, S., Woodhouse, L., Dzekov, C., Dzekov, J., Sinha-Hikim, I, Shen, R., Singh, A. B., Drew, C. R., Casaburi, R., Bhasin, D., Berman, N., Bross, R., Phillips, J., Chen, X., Yaarasheski, K. E., Magliano, L, & Storer, T. W. (2001). Testosterone dose-response relationships in healthy young men. American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism, 281, E1172-E1181.

  14. TRADITIONAL WEIGHT TRAINING ONLY IMPROVES STRENGTH

    Kieffer, H. S., & Heck, K. (2005). Comparing machine-based weight training and functional training programs on selected parameters of strength and performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37(5), Supplement abstract 945.

  15. MUSCLE MASS IS ONLY ONE FACTOR DETERMINING STRENGTH

    Hartman, M. Stolt, G., Bemben, D. A., Shehab, R. L., & Bemben, M. G. (2005). Effects of training experience on the relationship between muscle mass and isometric force production. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37(5), Supplement abstract 962.

  16. VOLITIONAL SPEED IS BETTER THAN SUPER-SLOW RESISTANCE TRAINING

    Hatfield, D. L., Kraemer, W. J., Spiering, B. A., Judelson, D. A., Shimano, T., Silvestre, R., Spreuwenberg, L., Volek, J. S., & Maresh, C. M. (2005). Acute effects of exercise velocity in resistance exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37(5), Supplement abstract 983.

  17. SLOW RATE-OF-FORCE-DEVELOPMENT EXERCISES ARE OF LIMITED VALUE TO SERIOUS ATHLETES

    Ricard, M. D., Ugrinowisch, C., Hilton, S., parcel, A. C., Hunter, I, Knight, K., & Tricoli, V. (2006). Effects of the rate of force development on fatigue onset and location. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 2405.

  18. ISOTONIC TRAINING INCREASES STRENGTH BETTER THAN ISOKINETIC TRAINING

    Kean, D. J., Gerninger, L. O., & Rankin, J. (2005). Isokinetic training, isotonic training, and strength development. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37(5), Supplement abstract 1259.

  19. OWN-BODYWEIGHT EXERCISES AS EFFECTIVE AS WEIGHT TRAINING

    Gutekunst, D. J., Frykman, P. N., Nindl, B. C., Rarick, K. R., Mello, R. P., & Harman, E. A. (2006). Training-induced improvements in submaximal gait economy with and without a backpack/military load. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1309.

  20. CAFFEINE MAY AFFECT THE LATTER SETS OF SOME RESISTANCE EXERCISES

    Wickwire, J., Green, J. M., Gendel, S., McLester, J. R., Pritchett, R., & Kovacs, M. (2006). The effects of caffeine on reps to failure and RPE during resistance training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1766.

  21. CAFFEINE OF LITTLE BENEFIT TO RESISTANCE TRAINING

    Hudson, G. M., Green, M., Bishop, P., & Richardson, M. (2007). Effects of caffeine and aspirin on resistance training performance, RPE, and pain perception. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number, 1586.

  22. HOW RESISTANCE TRAINING IS PERFORMED IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN HOW MUCH IS LIFTED

    Arent, S. M., Legatt, J., Diver, T., Pellegrino, J., & Alderman, B. L. (2006). State anxiety and biochemical responses to different resistance training intensities: The role of muscular failure. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 2001.

  23. MUSCLE COOLING ONLY AFFECTS MUSCLE PERFORMANCE AT FASTER SPEEDS

    Wilson, S. M., & Ecker, K. R. (2006). The influence of ice immersion on muscle force production, power, and total work in NCAA intercollegiate female athletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 2128.

  24. MUSCLE ARMOR BENEFITS RESISTANCE TRAINING

    Hatfield, D. L., Spiering, B. A., Fragala, M. S., Vingren, J. L., Ho, J. Y., Forsythe, C. E., Yamamoto, L. M., Puglisi, M. J., Anderson, J. M., Maresh, C. M., Volek, J. S., & Kraemer, W. J. (2007). Effects of Muscle Armor supplementation during a resistance training program on body composition and performance outcomes in men. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number, 1587.

  25. IMAGINED MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS TRAINING IS EFFECTIVE FOR DEVELOPING STRENGTH

    Reiser, M., Busch, D., & Munzert, J. (2007). Strength gains by imagination of muscle actions. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number, 1820.

  26. PASSIVE RECOVERY BETTER THAN ACTIVE RECOVERY IN RESISTANCE EXERCISE

    Renfrow, M. S., Caputo, J. L., & Farley, R. S. (2007). The effects of active versus passive recovery on blood lactate and exercise performance in resistance training. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number, 1819.

  27. MOTOR UNIT FIRING RATES CONTRIBUTE TO IMPROVEMENTS IN MUSCULAR ENDURANCE

    Mettler, J. A., & Griffin, L. (2007). Motor unit firing patterns during fatigue: Adaptations following endurance training. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number, 1925.

  28. UNTRAINED FEMALES LOSE STRENGTH FASTER THAN UNTRAINED MALES

    Deschenes, M. R., McCoy, R. W., & Holdren, A. N. (2007). Gender influences neuromuscular adaptations to muscle unloading. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number, 2363.

  29. ORDER OF EXERCISES INFLUENCES FEELINGS

    Hall, E. E., Bellezza, P. A., Bixby, W. R., & Miller, P. C. (2007). Changes in affect during and following resistance exercise: Does exercise order matter? ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number, 719.

  30. AGE- BUT NOT SEX-BASED DIFFERENCES IN INTERMITTENT ISOMETRIC FATIGUE

    Russ, D. W., Towse, T. F., Wigmore, D. M., Lanza, I. R., & Kent-Braun, J. A. (2008). Contrasting influences of age and sex on muscle fatigue. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 40, 234-241.

  31. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN STRENGTH LOSS AFTER ECCENTRIC EXERCISE

    Sewright, K. A., Hubal, M. J., Kearns, A., Holbrook, M. T., & Clarkson, P. M. (2008). Sex differences in response to maximal eccentric exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 40, 242-251.

  32. HYPOHYDRATION REDUCES RESISTANCE EXERCISE PERFORMANCE

    Judelson, D. A., Maresh, C. M., Farrell, M. J., Yamamoto, L. M., Armstrong, L. E., Kraemer, W. J., Volek, J. S., Spiering, B. A., Casa, D. J., & Anderson, J. M. (2007). Effect of hydration state on strength, power, and resistance exercise performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 39, 1817-1824.

  33. MUSIC INFLUENCES RESISTANCE TRAINING IN SOME INDIVIDUALS

    Welch, J. M., Kellner, K. A., Laroche, N. C., MacCormick, M. J., MacLean, K. F., & Hemeon, J. A. (2008). Motivational music during resistance training improves strength endurance. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis, Presentation Number, 1608.

    Sets

  34. ONE SET IS AS GOOD AS THREE FOR IMPROVING STRENGTH-RELATED FACTORS IN UNTRAINED MALES

    Thompson, J. A., & Terbizan, D. J. (2007). A comparison of single to multiple-set resistance training programs in males. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number, 1785.

  35. MULTIPLE SETS BETTER THAN A SINGLE SET FOR DEVELOPING STRENGTH

    Kelly, S. B., Brown, L. E., Coburn, J. W., Zinder, S. M., Gardner, L. M., & Nguyen, D. (2007). Effect of single vs. multiple sets for strength. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number, 2507.

    APPLICATIONS

  36. THE VALSALVA MANEUVER INCREASES STRENGTH

    Nelson, M. D., Kellawan, J. M., & Wolski, L. (2006). The Valsalva maneuver revisited: A natural occurring phenomenon leading to strength acquisition. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1771.

  37. MAXIMAL STRENGTH EFFORTS SHOULD BE CONSIDERED IN WARM-UPS FOR BRIEF MAXIMAL EFFORT ACTIVITIES

    Harris, C., Moore, J., DeBeliso, M., Adams, K. J., Berning, J., & Hanse, C. (2006). The effects of heavy squats on potentiating 30 second Wingate test performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1803.

  38. RESPIRATORY MUSCLE TRAINING IMPROVES INTERMITTENT-SPRINT PERFORMANCE

    Nicks, C., Farley, R., Fuller, D., Morgan, D., & Caputo, J. (20060. The effect of respiratory muscle training on performance, dyspnea, and respiratory muscle fatigue in intermittent sprint athletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 2152.

  39. INSPIRATORY MUSCLE TRAINING IMPROVES ROWING PERFORMANCE

    Griffiths, L. A., & McConnell, A. K. (2006). Differentiating the influence of inspiratory and expiratory muscle training upon rowing performance in club-level oarsmen. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 2167.

  40. RATING OF PERCEIVED EXERTION RELATED TO RESISTANCE EXERCISE INTENSITY

    Lagally, K. M., Rock, B. J., McCaw, S. T., & Brown, D. D. (2006). Selection of resistance exercise intensity using ratings of perceived exertion from the OMNI-RES. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 2641.

  41. COMBINED STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE TRAINING IMPROVES ONE ASPECT OF CYCLING PERFORMANCE

    Aagaard, P., Bennekou, M., Larsson, B., Andersen, J. L., Olesen, J., Crameri, R., Magnusson, P. S., & Kjaer, M. (2007). Resistance training leads to altered muscle fiber type composition and enhanced long-term cycling performance in elite competitive cyclists. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number, 2416.

    POWER

  42. ELASTIC RECOIL ACTIONS ARE SENSITIVE TO PRELOAD CONDITIONS

    Ishikawa, M., Niemela, E., & Komi, P. V. (2005). Fascicle and tendinous tissue behavior in stretch-shortening cycle exercise performed with varying prestretch intensities. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37(5), Supplement abstract 1434.

  43. POWER REDUCED BY STRETCHING

    Brill, Y., & Rodd, D. (2005). The effects of stretching on lower body strength and functional power performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37(5), Supplement abstract 260.

  44. CONTRACTILE VELOCITY IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN FORCE APPLICATION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF POWER

    Clark, D. J., Patten, C., Reid, K. F., Phillips, E. M., & Fielding, R. A. (2007). Does force or velocity contribute more to maximal muscle power in older adults? ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number, 1646.

  45. 1 RM STRENGTH CHANGES NOT RELATED TO POWER VARIABLES

    Nacliero, F., Forte, D., Colado, J. C., Benavent, J., & Chulvi, I. (2007). Analysis of the force and power produced in the squat over 52 weeks training. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number, 1776.

  46. STRENGTH IS NOT RELATED TO MOVING QUICKLY IN ANY PRACTICAL WAY

    Gardner, L. M., Brown, L. E., Coburn, J., Zinder, S. M., Kelly, S. B., & Nguyen, D. (2007). The relationship between strength and explosiveness. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number, 1794.

  47. EXPLOSIVE POWER NOT AFFECTED BY STRETCHING

    Edwards, D. A., Huntsman, E., Marmesh, L., & Signorile, J. A. (2007). The effect of selective stretching of the agonist and antagonist muscles on power output. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number, 1813.

  48. EXPLOSIVE TRAINING INCREASES POWER

    Edwards, W. W., Glickman, E. L., Nelson, A. G., Palfrey, T. C., Pena, J., Graf, J., & Mali, S. (2008). Effect of explosive strength training on power, blood glucose, lactate, and ketones in young adults. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis, Presentation Number, 1630.

    SPECIFICITY AND EXTENDED EFFECTS

  49. SPECIFICITY OF THE STRENGTH TRAINING RESPONSE

    McArdle, W. D., Katch, F. I., & Katch, V. L. (2004). Exercise physiology (5th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  50. REPETITIVE EXHAUSTIVE RESISTANCE TRAINING STIMULATES TESTOSTERONE

    Marvin, D. P., Figueira, Jr., A. J., & Pinto, L. G. (2006). One session of resistance training may increase serum testosterone and triiodetironine in young men? Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1774.

  51. HEAVY RESISTANCE TRAINING DOES NOT ALTER MODERATE RESISTANCE EXERCISE ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE

    Brechue, W. F., Mayhew, J. L., & Koch, A. J. (2006). Strength gains may alter absolute and relative muscle endurance in college football players. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1775.

  52. RESISTANCE TRAINING DOES NOT IMPROVE PEAK AEROBIC FITNESS

    Burrell, K. W., Sawyer, R. D., Dickin, D. C., & Williams, J. S. (2006). Cardiorespiratory adaptations to a heart rate based high intensity parallel squat resistance training program. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1792.

  53. SLOW STRENGTH TRAINING IMPROVES SLOW STRENGTH MOVEMENTS

    Blazevich, A. J., Cannavan, D., Coleman, D. R., Wytch, P., & Home, S. (2006). Neuromuscular and isometric force-velocity adaptations to concentric and eccentric strength training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1794.

  54. RESISTANCE TRAINING ADDS NO FURTHER BENEFIT TO AEROBIC TRAINING FOR AEROBIC TASKS

    Staab, J. S., Sharp, M. A., Nindl, B. C., Rarick, K. R., Spiering, B. A., Hatfield, D. L., Yamamoto, L. M., Frykman, P. N., Harman, E. A., Gutekenst, D. J., Volek, J. S., Maresh, C. M., & Kraemer, W. J. (2006). Comparison of three training programs for improving aerobic performance in women. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 2587.

  55. MUSCLES LOAD AND REACT DIFFERENTLY IN THE SAME EXERCISE

    Kinugasa, R., Kawakami, Y., & Fukunaga, T. (2006). Load-specific distribution of muscle activity in human triceps surae muscles. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 2127.

  56. RESISTANCE TRAINING EFFECTS ARE SPECIFIC, GENDER DIFFERENTIATED, AND UNLIKELY TO TRANSFER TO SPORTING ACTIVITIES

    Kerksick, C., Mayhew, J., Smith, A., Johnson, B., Hart, C., & Ward, T. (2007). General and specific strength development following resistance training in college men and women. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number, 1778.

  57. STRENGTH TRAINING EFFECTS IN THE ARMS APPEAR TO BE DIFFERENT TO THOSE OF THE LEGS

    Hendrix, C. R., Beck, T. W., Housh, T. J., Johnson, G. O., Weir, J. P., Cramer, J. T., Coburn, J. W., Malek, M. H., & Mielke, M. (2007). Effects of very short-term, unilateral, isokinetic training of the forearm flexors on strength in the trained and untrained limbs. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number, 1792.

  58. FOOT POSITION CHANGES IN LUNGING PRODUCE DIFFERENT MOVEMENT PATTERNS AND MUSCLE USE

    Escamilla, R. A., Bonacci, L., Burnham, T., Busch, J., D'Anna, K., Edwards, B., Eliopoulos, P., MacLeod, T., Mowbray, R., Imamura, R. T., & Hreljac, A. (2006). A biomechanical analysis of squatting and lunging type exercises. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1692.

  59. RESISTANCE TRAINABILITY DIFFERS BETWEEN THE ARMS AND LEGS IN FEMALES

    Marin, D. P., Ribeiro Fonseca, C. E., & Aylton Jr., A. J. (2008). Comparison of different rest intervals among sets on bench press and leg press performance. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis, Presentation Number, 1609.

  60. MAXIMUM STRENGTH AND VELOCITY DIFFER BETWEEN THE GENDERS

    Nguyen, D., Uribe, B., Nishimura, K., Brown, L. E., Coburn, J. W., & Judelson, D. A. (2008). Gender effects on dynamic RVD and static RFD. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis, Presentation Number, 1611.

  61. HIGH EFFORT STRENGTH TRAINING HAS NO BENEFICIAL TRANSFER TO HIGH VELOCITY ACTIVITIES

    Uribe, B., Nguyen, D., Nishimura, K., Brown, L. E., Coburn, J. W., & Judelson, D. A. (2008). Relationship between maximum isometric force and maximum velocity. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis, Presentation Number, 1612.

  62. MUSCLES RESPOND DIFFERENTLY TO SIMILAR FORMS OF RESISTANCE EXERCISE

    Hatzell, B., Johnson, S., Chaloupka, H., & Glass, S. C. (2008). Effects of velocity on muscle activation during leg extension exercise. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis, Presentation Number, 1624.

    CREATINE

  63. CREATINE-EMBELLISHED PROTEIN-CARBOHYDRATE SUPPLEMENTATION INCREASES MUSCLE HYPERTROPHY IN RESISTANCE TRAINING

    Cribb, P. J., Williams, A. D., & Hayes, A. (2007). A creatine-protein-carbohydrate supplement enhances responses to resistance training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 39, 1960-1968.

    PLYOMETRICS

  64. PLYOMETRIC EXERCISES ARE SPORT SPECIFIC

    McArdle, W. D., Katch, F. I., & Katch, V. L. (2004). Exercise physiology (5th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  65. PLYOMETRICS TRAINING CHANGES THE STRUCTURAL FUNCTION OF MUSCLES

    Malisoux, L., Francaus, M., & Theisen, D. (2005). Effect of plyometric training on mechanical properties of human single muscle fibres. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37(5), Supplement abstract 1520.

  66. DROP JUMPS SHOULD BE PERFORMED WITH APPROACH STEPS

    Ruan, M. (2005). The power output of drop jump is greater with approach run. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37(5), Supplement abstract 2024.

  67. PLYOMETRICS ADDED TO RESISTANCE TRAINING PRODUCES GREATER IMPROVEMENTS THAN RESISTANCE TRAINING ALONE

    Faigenbaum, A. D., McFarland, J. E., Keiper, F. B., Tevlin, W., Kang, J., Tatamess, N. A., & Hoffman, J. R. (2006). Combined plyometric and resistance training improves power performance in boys. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1472.

  68. PLYOMETRIC TRAINING IS SUPERIOR TO WEIGHT TRAING FOR DEVELOPING HIGH-VELOCITY MOVEMENTS BECAUSE IT ALTERS MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

    Kubo, K., Morimoto, M., Komuro, T., Yata, H., Tsunoda, N., Kanehisa, H., & Funukaga, T. (2007). Effects of plyometric and weight training on muscle-tendon complex and jump performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 39, 1801-1810.

    STRETCHING

  69. STRETCHING IS INFLAMMATORY

    Yang, G., Im, H. J., & Wang, J. H. (October 12, 2005). Repetitive mechanical stretching modulates IL-1beta induced COX-2, MMP-1 expression, and PGE(2) production in human patellar tendon fibroblasts. Gene, October 12, 2005.

  70. STRETCHING NEGATIVELY IMPACTS POWER PERFORMANCES

    Nelson, A. G., Driscoll, N. M., Landin, D. K., Young, M. A., & Schexnayder, I. C. (2005). Acute effects of passive muscle stretching on sprint performance. Journal of Sports Science, 23, 449-454.

  71. STRETCHING HAS TO BE PERFORMED FOR SOME ACTIVITIES

    Gremion, G. (2005). Is stretching for sports performance still useful? A review of the literature. Revue Medicale de la Suisse, 1(28), 1830-1834.

  72. STRETCHING RESEARCH METHODOLOGY HAS BEEN POOR

    Decoster, L. C., Cleland, J., Altieri, C., & Russell, P. (2005). The effects of hamstring stretching on range of motion: a systematic literature review. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 35(6), 377-387.

  73. STRETCHING FAILS TO IMPROVE RECOVERY FROM LEG INJURY

    Moseley, A. M., Herbert, R. D., Nightingale, E. J., Taylor, D. A., Evans, T. M., Robertson, G. J., Gupta, S. K., & Penn, J.(2005). Passive stretching does not enhance outcomes in patients with plantar flexion contracture after cast immobilization for ankle fracture: a randomized controlled trial. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 86(6), 1118-1126.

  74. ROM IMPROVED BY POTENTIATION AND NOT STRETCHING

    Bazett-Jones, D. M., Winchester, J. B., & McBride, J. M. (2005). Effect of potentiation and stretching on maximal force, rate of force development, and range of motion. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 19, 421-426.

  75. HEAVY STATIC STRETCHING INTERFERES WITH MAXIMAL STRENGTH

    Nelson, A. G., Kokkonen, J., & Arnall, D. A. (2005). Acute muscle stretching inhibits muscle strength endurance performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 19, 338-343.

  76. STRETCHING NO MORE EFFECTIVE THAN ECCENTRIC TRAINING FOR HAMSTRING ROM

    Nelson, R. T., & Bandy, W. D. (2004). Eccentric training and static stretching improve hamstring flexibility of high school males. Journal of Athletic Training, 39, 254-258.

  77. STRETCHING IMPAIRS WARM-UP EFFECT ON BALANCE AND REACTION/ MOVEMENT TIME

    Behm, D. G., Bambury, A., Cahill, F., Power, K. (2004). Effect of acute static stretching on force, balance, reaction time, and movement time. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36, 1397-1402.

  78. STRETCHING REDUCES FORCE PRODUCTION IN THE QUADRICEPS

    Power, K., Behm, D., Cahill, F., Carroll, M., Young, W. (2004). An acute bout of static stretching: effects on force and jumping performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36, 1389-1396.

  79. PNF DOES NOT NEED HIGH-EFFORT CONTRACTIONS

    Feland, J. B., & Marin, H. N. (2004). Effect of submaximal contraction intensity in contract-relax proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 38, E18.

  80. PNF BETTER THAN STATIC STRETCHING

    Funk, D. C., Swank, A. M., Mikla, B. M., Fagan, T. A., & Farr, B. K. (2003). Impact of prior exercise on hamstring flexibility: a comparison of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and static stretching. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 17, 489-492.

  81. PNF STRETCHING ENHANCES STRENGTH PERFORMANCE WHILE OTHER FORMS OF STRETCHING DO NOT

    Conley, D., Belt, J. L., Hochstein, N. L., Evetovich, T. K., Engebretsen, B. J., & Todd, J. B. (2006). Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation but not static or ballistic stretching increases one repetition maximum bench press. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1816.

  82. PNF STRETCHING PLUS WARM-UP PRODUCES DESIRABLE EFFECTS

    Ryan, E. E., Lopez, R., Rossi, M. D., Doherty, J. L., & Jacobs, P. L. (2006). The effects of contract-relax-antagonist-contract form of PNF stretching on postural stability. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 2422.

  83. PNF STRETCHING AND JUMPING WARM-UPS IMPROVE VERTICAL JUMPING

    Conley, D. S., Fertig, T. A., Huot, V., Jacobsen, J. A., Villwok, R. L., Evetovich, T. K., Engerbretsen, B. J., & Todd, J. B. (2007). The best warm-up for optimal vertical jump performance in collegiate female volleyball athletes. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number, 1438.

  84. STRETCHING DOES NOT PREVENT INJURIES IN SOME SPORTS BUT DOES IN OTHERS

    Witvrouw, E., Mahieu, N., Danneels, L., & McNair, P. (2004). Stretching and injury prevention: an obscure relationship. Sports Medicine, 34, 443-449.

  85. STRETCHING REDUCES FORCE PRODUCTION IN WOMEN

    Cramer, J. T., Housh, T. J., Johnson, G. O., Miller, J. M., Coburn, J. W., & Beck, T. W. (2004). Acute effects of static stretching on peak torque in women. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 18, 236-241.

  86. STRETCHING AND INJURY PREVENTION IS EQUIVOCAL

    Thacker, S. B., Gilchrist, J., Stroup, D. F., & Kimsey, C. D. Jr. (2004). The impact of stretching on sports injury risk: a systematic review of the literature. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36, 371-378.

  87. WHAT STRETCHING DOES

    Guissard, N., & Duchateau, J. (2004). Effect of static stretch training on neural and mechanical properties of the human plantar-flexor muscles. Muscle and Nerve, 29, 248-255.

  88. REVIEW QUESTIONS VALUE OF STRETCHING SUGGESTING IT IS DANGEROUS

    Ingraham, S. J. (2003). The role of flexibility in injury prevention and athletic performance: Have we stretched the truth? Minnesota Medicine, 86(5), 58-61.

  89. STRETCHING EFFECTS CAN BE MAINTAINED AND ARE INDEPENDENT OF WARM-UP

    de Weijer, V. C., Gorniak, G. C., & Shamus, E. (2003). The effect of static stretch and warm-up exercise on hamstring length over the course of 24 hours. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy , 33, 727-733.

  90. STRETCHING BEFORE STRENGTH WORK IMPAIRS STRENGTH FUNCTION

    Mello, M. L., Pereira, M., Gomes, P. S. (2005). Acute effect of static and PNF stretching on dominant knee flexion and extension strength. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37(5), Supplement abstract 951.

  91. LOW-FREQUENCY STRETCHING YIELDS MINOR IMPROVEMENTS IN HAMSTRING FLEXIBILITY

    Wittman, M., Babault, N., & Kouassi, B. Y. (2005). Static stretch and warm-up: Effects on the lower limb flexibility and jumping ability. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37(5), Supplement abstract 991.

  92. RUNNING ECONOMY IS INVERSELY RELATED TO FLEXIBILITY

    Henry, K. M., Sawyer, J., Fogarty, T., & Mattrick, M. (2006). The relationship between physiological and kinematic parameters, and running economy. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1308.

  93. FLEXIBILITY TRAINING DOES NOT IMPROVE TORQUE DEVELOPMENT

    LaRoche, D. P., Lussier, M., & Roy, S. (2006). Effects of 4 weeks of stretching on active torque development. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1672.

  94. STATIC STRETCHING DOES NOT CHANGE HOPPING PERFORMANCE

    Christiansen, C. L., & Heise, G. D. (2006). The acute effects of static stretching on human hopping performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1686.

  95. STATIC STRETCHING DOES NOT AFFECT JOINT POSITION SENSE

    McNeal, J. R., Salo, H. A., Sands, W. A., & Kawaguchi, J. (2006). Effects of acute static stretch on joint position sense in the shoulder. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1748.

  96. YOGA AND STATIC STRETCHING INCREASE FLEXIBILITY

    Casey, B., & Terbizan, D. (2006). Improving lower body flexibility, comparing the use of yoga and a static stretching program. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1749.

  97. STRETCHING BEFORE SOME ACTIVITIES HAS NO EFFECT

    Millar, A L., & Trubey, C. L. (2006). Effects of stretching techniques on physiological and functional measures. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1750.

  98. PRE-ACTIVITY STRETCHING IMPAIRS REACTION TIME AND EXPLOSIVE POWER

    Chavez, C., & McLester, J. R. (2006). Stretching negatively affects reaction time but not jump height during repetitive vertical jump performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1753.

  99. STATIC STRETCHING DOES NOT IMPAIR KNEE FLEXOR ISOKINETIC ACTIVITY

    Wilson, M., Jones, N. B., Berger, C. G., & Yates, J. W. (2006). Moderate static stretching does not influence torque production of the knee flexors. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1754.

  100. A WARM-UP HAS BETTER EFFECTS ON PERFORMANCE THAN STRETCHING

    Wright, G., Williams, L., Greany, J., & Foster, C. (2006). Effect of static stretching, dynamic stretching, and warm-up on active hip range of motion and vertical jump. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1756.

  101. STATIC BALANCE TRAINING APPEARS TO HAVE SPECIFIC AND GENERAL EFFECTS

    Behm, D. G., Kean, C. O., & Young, W. B. (2006). Task specificity of static and dynamic balance training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1757.

  102. A 30-SECOND STRETCH DECREASES STRENGTH PRODUCTION

    Nelson, A. G., Winchester, J. B., & Kokkonen, J. (2006). A single thirty second stretch is sufficient to inhibit maximal voluntary Strength. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1811.

  103. HAMSTRING STRENGTH ONLY AFFECTED BY STRETCHING AT SHORT MUSCLE LENGTHS

    McHugh, M. P., & Johnson, A. (2006). Strength loss following static stretching: The role of muscle length. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 2122.

  104. THE EFFECT OF PRE-PERFORMANCE STRETCHING SEEMS TO BE RELATED TO THE TYPE OF EXERCISE PERFORMED

    Neese, M., & Malachy, P. (2006). The effect of static stretching on strength loss and pain following eccentric exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 2176.

  105. STATIC STRETCHING INHIBITS ACCELERATION AND SPRINTING

    Sayers, A., Caputo, J. L., Farley, R. S., Fuller, D. K., & Jubenville, C. B. (2007). The effect of static stretching on phases of sprint performance in elite soccer players. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number, 1440.

  106. STRETCHING DOES NOT INFLUENCE VERTICAL JUMP HEIGHT IF A WARM-UP IS PERFORMED

    Dalrymple, K., Davis, S., Dwyer, G., & Moir, G. (2007). Effect of static and dynamic stretching on vertical jump performance in collegiate women volleyball players. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number, 1441.

  107. MINIMAL STRETCHING DOES NOT AFFECT STRENGTH OR AGILITY IN NORMAL SUBJECTS

    Millar, A. L., Correa, R., & McIntosh, N. (2007). Effects of different types of stretching on strength and agility. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number, 1815.

  108. STRETCHING REDUCES STRENGTH WITH STATIC STRETCHING BEING MORE SEVERE THAN BALLISTIC STRETCHING

    Miyahara, Y., Ogura, Y., Naito, H., Ayabe, M., Saga, N., Kurosaka, M., & Katamoto, S. (2007). Comparison between the effect of ballistic stretching and static stretching on maximal voluntary contraction. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number, 1833.

  109. STRETCHING DOES NOT AFFECT RESISTANCE TRAINING PERFORMANCE

    Signorelli, G. R., & Franco, B. L. (2007). Influence of single and multiple sets of static stretching on bench press efforts. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number, 1834.

  110. STATIC STRETCHING REDUCES POWER OUTPUT

    Ramierz, E. B., Williford, H. N., & Olson, M. S. (2007). Effects of a static stretching versus conventional warm-up on power output during Wingate cycle performance. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number, 2025.

  111. STRETCHING ONE LIMB INCREASES RANGE OF MOTION IN THE OTHER LIMB

    Kokkonen, J., Nelson, A. G., Marcello, B., & Driscoll, N. (2007). Stretching one leg increases the range of motion of the contralateral unstretched leg. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number, 2044.

  112. STATIC BUT NOT DYNAMIC STRETCHING REDUCES LEG STRENGTH

    Herda, T. J., Cramer, J. T., Ryan, E. D., McHugh, M. P., &Stout, J. R. (2007). Acute effects of static versus dynamic stretching on isometric strength and neuromuscular function of the leg flexors. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number, 2356.

  113. PASSIVE STRETCHING PRODUCES A SHORT-TERM LOSS IN STRENGTH

    Ryan, E. D., Cramer, J. T., Herda, T. J., Hull, H. R., Hartman, M. J., Karabulut, M., Anderson, R. L., & Stout, J. R. (2007). Time course for the acute effects of passive stretching on isometric strength and neuromuscular function. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number, 2361.

  114. STATIC STRETCHING INTERFERES WITH ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCES

    Mosey, Teresa, Mosey, Teri, & Otto, R. M. (2007). The affects of acute static stretching on anaerobic performance of recreational softball players. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number, 2572.

  115. SHORT-DURATION STATIC STRETCHING REDUCES MUSCLE STRENGTH

    Davis, J. E., & MacConnell, T. D. (2007). Acute effects of static and Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation stretching on muscle strength and range of motion. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number, 2575.

  116. MASSAGE DOES NOT INFLUENCE FLEXIBILITY

    Dorian, T., Schroeder, K., Fogarty, T., Mel, A., & Jones, M. T. (2007). The influence of massage on pre- and post-exercise flexibility: A preliminary analysis. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number, 2577.

  117. STIFF ANKLES INCREASE RUNNING EFFICIENCY

    Eriksud, O., Moltubakk, M. M, & Smith, G. A. (2007). Flexibility and stiffness interactions influence running economy. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number, 820.

  118. STATIC STRETCHING PRODUCES FITNESS BENEFITS IN NON-ATHLETIC INDIVIDUALS

    Kokkonen, J., Nelson, A. G., Eldredge, C., & Winchester, J. B. (2007). Chronic static stretching improves exercise performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 39, 1825-1831.

  119. EFFECTS OF PASSIVE STRETCHING ARE SHORT-LIVED

    Ryan, E. D., Herda, T. J., Hull, H. R., Hartman, M. J., Beck, T. W., Stout, J. R., & Cramer, J. T. (2008). Time course for the effects of passive stretching on musculotendinous stiffness: A dose-response study. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis, Presentation Number, 1365.

  120. LOW AND HIGH VOLUME STRETCHING DOES NOT EFFECT ONE-REPETITION MAXIMUM PERFORMANCE

    Conley, D. S., Molacek, Z. D., Evetovich, T. K., Engebreston, B. J., & Hinnerichs, K. R. (2008). Effects of low and high volume stretching on bench press performance in collegiate football players. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis, Presentation Number, 1622.

    RELATED FACTORS

  121. WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION TRAINING IMPROVES SPRINTING IN STUDENTS

    Paradisis, G., Tziortzis, S., & Zacharogiannis, E. (2005). The effects of six-week whole body vibration training on sprinting. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37(5), Supplement abstract 992.

  122. VIBRATION-STRETCHING IMPROVES FLEXIBILITY BUT NOT EXPLOSIVE STRENGTH

    Kinser, A. M., Ramsey, M. W., O'Bryant, H. S., Ayres, C. A., Sands, W. A., & Stone, M. H. (2008). Vibration and stretching effects on flexibility and explosive strength in young gymnasts. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 40, 133-140.

  123. ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT OF MUSCLE FIBER TYPES

    Weir, J. P., Fry, A. C., Cramer, J. T. Schilling, B. K., Beck, T. W., Falvo, M. J., Moore, C. A., & Housh, T. J. (2006). Relationships among muscle fiber type, electromyography, and mechanomyography during fatigue in resistance vs. aerobically-trained subjects. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1353.

  124. MASSAGE REDUCES FORCE PRODUCTION IN MUSCLES

    Hunter, A. M., Smith, I. J., Watt, J. M., Yirrell, C., & Galloway, S. D. (2006). The effect of massage on force production and tensiomyography. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 690.

  125. PRE-TENSING DOES NOT BENEFIT SPRINT STARTS

    Dapena, J., Gutiarrez-DaVila, M., & Campos, A. (2006). The effect of muscular pre-tensing on the sprint start. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 745.

  126. HAMSTRING STRAINS ARE CAUSED BY FORCES IN EXTREME POSITIONS

    Askling, C. M., Tengvar, M., Saartok, T., & Thorstensson, A. (April 30, 2008). Proximal hamstring strains of stretching type in different sports: Injury situations, clinical and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics, and return to sport. American Journal of Sports Medicine. [http://ajs.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/0363546508315892v1].

Return to Coaching Science Abstracts' Main Table of Contents.