ABSTRACTS IN THE TRAINING FOR SWIMMING

This section of the Swimming Science Journal contains abstracts of articles concerned with training for swimming. As articles are located they are appended to the end of the list.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

  1. LEVEL OF PERFORMER MODIFIES TRAINING RESPONSES

    International Center for Aquatic Research. Training response and adaptations. The Coaches' Newsletter of United States Swimming, 4(5).

  2. HOW MUCH WORK SHOULD BE DONE

    International Center for Aquatic Research. Interval training design. The Coaches' Newsletter of United States Swimming, 4(5).

  3. ULTRA-SHORT TRAINING IS BENEFICIAL

    Beckett, K. (1986). Swimming fast. Swimming Technique, August-October, 27-29.

  4. ONE FORM OF RESISTANCE TRAINING THAT HAS PROMISE

    Toussaint, H. M., & Vervoorn, K. (1990). Effects of specific high resistance training in the water on competitive swimmers. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 11, 228-23.

  5. WEIGHT TRAINING IS OF NO VALUE TO AGE-GROUPERS

    Bulgakova, N. Z., Vorontsov, A. R., & Fomichenko, T. G. (1987). Improving the technical preparedness of young swimmers by using strength training. Theory and Practice of Physical Culture, 7, 31-33.

  6. TETHERED SWIMMING TRAINS THE WRONG TECHNIQUES

    Maglischo, E. W., Maglischo, C. W., Zier, D. J., & Santos, T. R. (1985). The effects of sprint-assisted and sprint-resisted swimming on stroke mechanics. Journal of Swimming Research, 1, 27-33.

  7. LAND-TRAINING IS OF LITTLE VALUE

    Costill, D. L., King, D. S., Holdren, A., & Hargreaves, M. (1983). Sprint speed vs. swimming power. Swimming Technique, May-July, 20-22.

  8. STRENGTH MOST RELATED TO SWIMMING 25 YARDS

    Sharp. R. L., Troup, J. P., & Costill, D. L. (1982). Relationship between power and sprint freestyle swimming. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 14, 53-56.

  9. 15 MINUTES OF SWIMMING IS REQUIRED FOR AN ADEQUATE COOL-DOWN

    McMaster, W. C., Stoddard, T., & Duncan, W. (1989). Enhancement of blood lactate clearance following maximal swimming. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 17, 472-476.

  10. HEART RATES NOT SENSITIVE TO SHORT-TERM DETRAINING

    Neufer, P. D. (1989). The effect of detraining and reduced training on the physiological adaptations to aerobic exercise training. Sports Medicine, 6(5), 302-321.

  11. INDIVIDUALIZED TRAINING SHOULD NOT BE NEGLECTED

    Savage, M. V., Brown, S. L., Savage, P., & Bannister, E. W. (1981, October). Physiological and performance correlates of training in swimmers. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Association of Sport Sciences, Halifax.

  12. WARM-UP CAN HAVE A VARIETY OF FORMS

    Houmard, J. A., Johns, R. A., Smith, L. L., Wells, J. M., Kobe, R. W., & McGoogan, S. A. (1991). The effect of warm-up on responses to intense exercise. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 12, 480-483.

  13. LAND-BASED TRAINING OF NO BENEFIT TO MATURE SWIMMERS

    Tanaka, H., Costill, D. L., Thomas, R., Fink, W. J., & Widrick, J. J. (1993). Dry-land resistance training for competitive swimming. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 25, 952-959.

  14. CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS AND PERFORMANCE

    Four Abstracts About Circadian Rhythms and Performance.

  15. THERE ARE ABSOLUTE LEVELS OF FITNESS THAT CAN BE ATTAINED BY SWIMMERS

    Rushall Thoughts, 1992. When ceiling levels of fitness are reached in swimming.

  16. FACTORS AFFECTING SWIMMING PERFORMANCE

    Bonen, A., & Kemp, N. H. (1977). Physiological, metabolic and practical considerations for training swimmers. Research Papers in Physical Education, 3(3), 10-15.

  17. WHAT PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTORS SHOULD BE TESTED

    Sharp, R. L. (1993). Prescribing and evaluating interval training sets in swimming: a proposed model. Journal of Swimming Research, 9, 36-40.

  18. BASIC AEROBIC TRAINING COMPONENTS

    Madsen, O. (1983). Aerobic training: not so fast, there. Swimming Technique, November 1982-January 1983, 13-18.

  19. WHAT SETS SHOULD BE SWUM

    Rushall Thoughts, 1995. [In response to a question from Dr. Brian Browne].

  20. MASTERS SWIMMERS MIGHT DO SOME WEIGHT WORK

    Hartley, A. A., & Hartley, J. T. (1986). Age differences and changes in sprint swimming performances of masters athletes. Experimental Aging Research, 12(2), 65-70.

  21. OPTIMUM AGE FOR LEARNING SWIMMING

    Blanksby, B. A., Parker, H. E., Bradley, S., & Ong, S. (1995). Children's readiness for learning front crawl swimming. The Australian Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 27(2), 34-37.

  22. PREPUBERTAL BOY AND GIRL SWIMMERS ARE SIMILAR

    Blanksby, B. A., Bloomfield, J., Elliott, B. C., Ackland, T. R., & Morton, A. R. (1986). The anatomical and physiological characteristics of pre-adolescent males and females. Australian Pediatric Journal, 22, 177-180.

  23. AGE-GROUP SWIMMING SHOULD EMPHASIZE ENDURANCE

    Bloomfield, J., Blanksby, B. A., Ackland, T. R., & Elliott, B. C. (1985). The anatomical and physiological characteristics of pre-adolescent swimmers, tennis players and non-competitors. The Australian Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 17, 19-23.

  24. SWIMMING TALENT IDENTIFICATION IS DIFFICULT

    Bloomfield, J., Blanksby, B. A., & Ackland, T. R. (1990). Morphological and physiological growth of competitive swimmers and non-competitors through adolescence. The Australian Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 22, 4-12.

  25. STRENGTH TRAINING IMPROVES SWIMMING PERFORMANCE

    Hsu, T. G., Hsu, K. M., & Hsieh, S. S. (1997). The effects of shoulder isokinetic strength training on speed and propulsive forces in front crawl swimming. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29(5), Supplement abstract 713.

  26. FLUID REPLACEMENT DURING PRACTICE IS NEEDED

    Taimura, A., Sugahara, M., Lee, J. B., & Matsumoto, T. (1997). Effect of fluid intake on plasma volume, osmolality, body temperature, and performance during swimming training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29(5), Supplement abstract 764.

  27. A CONDITIONING EMPHASIS IS NOT A PATH TO SUCCESS

    Kame, V. D., Pendergast, D. R., & Termin, B. (1990). Physiologic responses to high intensity training in competitive university swimmers. Journal of Swimming Research, 6(4), 5-8.

  28. AUXILIARY TRAINING FORMS PRODUCE DIFFERENT EFFECTS

    Sexsmith, J. R., Oliver, M. L., & Johnson-Bos, J. M. (1992). Acute responses to surgical tubing and biokinetic swim bench interval exercise. Journal of Swimming Research, 8, 5-10.

  29. SOME FORMS OF AUXILIARY TRAINING HAVE TO BE WRONG

    Payne, W. R., & Lemon, P. W. R. (1982, October). Metabolic comparison of tethered and simulated swimming ergometer exercise. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Association of Sports Sciences, Victoria, British Columbia.

  30. CONSIDERATIONS FOR SWIMMING TESTS

    Olbrecht, J., Madsen, O., Mader, A., Liesen, H., & Hollmann, W. (1985). Relationship between swimming velocity and lactic concentration during continuous and intermittent training exercises. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 6, 74-77.

  31. AEROBIC TRAINING IMPROVES STROKE LENGTH

    Wakayoshi, K., Yoshida, T., Ikuta, Y., Mutoh, Y., & Miyashita, M. (1993). Adaptations to six months of aerobic swim training: Changes in velocity, stroke rate, stroke length and blood lactate. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 14, 368-372.

  32. BOYS AND GIRLS RESPOND TO TRAINING DIFFERENTLY

    Rocha, J. R., Matsudo, S. M, Figueira, A. J., & Matsudo, V. K. (1997). Training program effect after detraining in young athletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29(5), Supplement abstract 987.

  33. CROSS-MODAL REFERENCING OF RPE IS UNRELIABLE FOR LOWER LEVELS OF EFFORT

    Green, J. M., Michael, T. J., & Solomon, A. H. (1997). The use of ratings of perceived exertion for self-monitoring swimming intensity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29(5), Supplement abstract 1229.

  34. COMMENTS ON "SCIENTIFIC TESTING"

    Scientific Testing. Rick L. Sharp (personal communication, 30 August, 1994).

  35. MEASUREMENT OF COMPONENT OF SWIMMING POWER

    Sharp, R. L, Troup, J. P., & Costill, D. L. (1982). Relationship between power and sprint freestyle swimming. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 14, 53-56.

  36. INDIVIDUAL COACHING

    Individual Coaching. Carlile, F. (personal communication, July 8, 1991).

  37. NEED FOR INDIVIDUALIZED COACHING IN A WORLD CHAMPION

    Safe, M. (1992). The loneliness of the long-distance swimmer. The Australian Magazine, July 11-12, 8-11.

  38. PSYCHOLOGICAL VARIABLES ARE BETTER DETECTORS OF OVERTRAINING THAN PHYSIOLOGICAL VARIABLES

    Theriault, D., Richard, D., Labrie, A., & Theriault, G. (1997). Physiological and psychological variables in swimmers during a competitive season in relation to the overtraining syndrome. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29(5), Supplement abstract 1237.

  39. AEROBIC TRAINING AT 4Mm PRODUCES AEROBIC ADAPTATIONS

    Baltaci, G., & Ergun, N. (1997). Effect of endurance training on maximal aerobic power of competitive swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29(5), Supplement abstract 1260.

  40. A WEEKEND OF SWIMMING COMPETITION PRODUCES OVERTRAINING SYMPTOMS

    Griffin, A., & Unnithan, V. B. (1997). Physiological effects on intense swimming competition on elite female swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29(5), Supplement abstract 1617.

  41. POOL SWIMMING TESTS ARE BETTER THAN FLUME SWIMMING TESTS

    Wakayoshi, K., Yoshida, T., Udo, M., Kasai, T., Moritani, T., Mutoh, T., & Miyashita, M. (1992). A simple method for determining critical speed as swimming fatigue threshold in competitive swimming. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 13, 367-371.

  42. SOME SLEEP DISRUPTION IN NON-OVERTRAINED ATHLETES DURING PEAK TRAINING

    Taylor, S. R., Rogers, G. G., & Driver, H. S. (1997). Effects of training volume on sleep, psychological, and selected physiological profiles of elite female swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29, 688-693.

  43. PRESCRIBED TRAINING INTENSITIES NOT FOLLOWED BY ATHLETES

    Stewart, A. M., & Hopkins, W. G. (1997). Swimmers' compliance with training prescription. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29, 1389-1392.

  44. BIASED ADVOCACY FOR ALTITUDE TRAINING

    Miyashita, M. (1996). Key factors in success of altitude training for swimming. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 67, Supplement to issue 3, 76-78.

  45. TRAINING INTENSITY, NOT VOLUME OR FREQUENCY, IS RELATED TO PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT

    Mujika, I., Busson, T., Geyssant, A., & Chatard, J. C. (1996). Training content and its effects on performance in 100 and 200 m swimmers. In J. P. Troup, A. P. Hollander, D. Strasse, S. W. Trappe, J. M. Cappaert, & T. A. Trappe (Eds.), Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming VII (pp. 201-207). London: E & FN Spon.

  46. PRINCIPLES FOR TRAINING PREPUBERTAL SWIMMERS

    Bar-Or, O. (1996). Developing the prepubertal athlete: Physiological principles. In J. P. Troup, A. P. Hollander, D. Strasse, S. W. Trappe, J. M. Cappaert, & T. A. Trappe (Eds.), Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming VII (pp. 135-139). London: E & FN Spon.

  47. EXTRA EFFORT AT HIGH SWIMMING VELOCITIES WILL YIELD LITTLE TO NO PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENTS

    Capelli, C., Pendergast, D.R., & Termin, B. (1998). Energetics of swimming at maximal speeds in humans. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 78(5), 385-393.

  48. THREE MONTHS IS ABOUT ALL THAT IS NEEDED TO ESTABLISH AEROBIC ADAPTATION IN SWIMMERS

    Bonifazi, M., Bela, E., Lupo, C., Martelli, G., Zhu, B., & Carli, G. (1998). Influence of training on the response to exercise of adrenocorticotropin and growth hormone plasma concentrations in human swimmers. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 78(5), 394-397.

  49. THERE IS MORE TO AN EFFECTIVE TAPER THAN PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RECOVERY

    Hooper, S.L., Mackinnon, L.T., & Ginn, E.M. (1998). Effects of three tapering techniques on the performance, forces and psychometric measures of competitive swimmers. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 78(3), 258-263.

  50. COOL DOWN SWIMMING USUALLY IS NOT DONE CORRECTLY

    Strozberg, M. V., & Klar, A. B. (1998). Assisted cool down procedures in high performance swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30(5), Supplement abstract 281.

  51. BLOOD LACTATE BETTER FOR PREDICTING SWIMMING VELOCITY THAN STROKE LENGTH

    Keskinen, K. L., and Keskinen, O. P. (1998). Determination of training loads from stroking performance in front crawl swimming. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30(5), Supplement abstract 328.

  52. STRESS SYMPTOM INCREASES IN AGE-GROUP SWIMMERS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES

    Kerr, G., VanHeest, J. L., & Rodgers, C. D. (1998). Changes in psychological and biochemical indices of stress across a competitive season in age-group swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30(5), Supplement abstract 502.

  53. OVERTRAINING IS SYMPTOMATICALLY SIMILAR IN AGE-GROUP AND ADULT ATHLETES

    Sawamura, S., Raglin, J., Alexiou, S., Hassmen, P., & Kentta, G. (1998). Training practices and staleness in age-group swimmers: A cross-cultural study. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30(5), Supplement abstract 503.

  54. A TWO-WEEK TAPER IS BEST FOR FEMALE SWIMMERS

    Kenitzer, R. F. (1998). Optimal taper period in female swimmers based on blood lactate concentrations and performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30(5), Supplement abstract 611.

  55. ONCE GROWTH HAS CEASED ENERGY CAPACITIES ARE FIXED AND NOT ALTERED BY TRAINING

    Novitsky, S. A. (1998). No change in energy systems power rate production constants over a competitive swimming season. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30(5), Supplement abstract 613.

  56. SPURIOUS ALTITUDE TRAINING EFFECTS IN SWIMMERS

    Pyne, D. B. (1998). Performance and physiological changes in highly trained swimmers during altitude training. Coaching and Sport Science Journal, 3, 42-48.

  57. FEMALE SWIMMERS DO NOT BENEFIT FROM CREATINE BUT MALES DO OVER A LIMITED RANGE OF TRAINING DISTANCES

    Jacobs, K. A., Leenders, N. Y., Sherman, W. M., Nelson, T. E., Lamb, D. R., & Miller, E. C. (1998). Creatine (Cr) supplementation and swimming. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30(5), Supplement abstract 1506.

  58. ANAEROBIC FATIGUE AFFECTS SWIMMING VELOCITY AND STROKE RATE

    Barden, J. M., & Rorke, S. C. (1999). Stroke parameter relationships in a repeated swim interval training set. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31(5), Supplement abstract 375.

  59. MUSCULAR STRENGTH NOT RELATED TO SPRINT-SWIMMING PERFORMANCE

    Crowe, S. E., Babington, J. P., Tanner, D. A., & Stager, J. M. (1999). The relationship of strength and dryland power, swimming power, and swim performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31(5), Supplement abstract 1230.

  60. RECOVERING TRAINED STATES TAKES MUCH LONGER THAN IT DOES TO LOSE THEM

    Hsu, K. M., & Hsu, T. G. (1999). The effects of detraining and retraining on swimming propulsive force and blood lactate. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31(5), Supplement abstract 1400.

  61. HAND PADDLES VIOLATE THE PRINCIPLE OF SPECIFICITY

    Ogita, F., Onodera, T., & Izumi, T. (1999). Effect of hand paddles on anaerobic energy release during supramaximal swimming. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31, 729-735.

  62. STROKE TRAINING SHOULD BE EMPHASIZED OVER EVENT-DISTANCE TRAINING

    Stewart, A. M., & Hopkins, W. G. (2000). Consistency of swimming performance within and between competitions. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32, 997-1001.

  63. THE HARDER A SWIMMER TRAINS, THE SLOWER WILL BE SPRINTING

    Fitts, R. H., Costill, D. L., & Gardetto, P. R. (1989). Effect of swim exercise training on human muscle fiber function. Journal of Applied Physiology, 66, 465-475.

  64. TWO-A-DAY TRAINING SCHEDULES PRODUCE CONSISTENT TRAINING

    Arnett, M. G. (2000). The effect of a morning and afternoon practice schedule on morning and afternoon swim performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(5), Supplement abstract 1693.

  65. TAPER DOES NOT CHANGE MEASURES OF TRAINING ADAPTATION

    Rinehardt, K., Axtell, R., Fontana, C., Breault, R., Genthe, J., & Garay, R. (2000). Effect of taper training in collegiate swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(5), Supplement abstract 975.

  66. SHOULDERS CAN BE TOO FLEXIBLE

    McMaster, W. C., Roberts, A., & Stoddard, T. (1998). A correlation between shoulder laxity and interfering pain in competitive swimmers. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 26, 83-85.

  67. DO NOT WEAR SWIM CAPS WHEN TRAINING IN WARM WATER

    Matsunami, M., & Taimura, A. (2001). Thermoregulatory and perceptual response to swimming with a cap. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(5), Supplement abstract 751.

  68. SWIMMING PERFORMANCES ARE IMPROVING NORMALLY

    Stager, J. M., Skube, J., Tanner, D. A., Winston, W., & Morris, H. H. (2001). Predicting elite swim performance at the USA 2000 Olympic Swim Trials. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(5), Supplement abstract 898.

  69. AGE-GROUP SWIMMERS PHYSICALLY DEVELOP IN AN UNBALANCED MANNER

    Astrab, J., Small, E., & Kerner, M. S. (2001). Muscle strength and flexibility in young elite swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(5), Supplement abstract 1924.

  70. A BETTER PROGRAMMING STRUCTURE FOR SWIMMING TRAINING

    Termin, B., & Pendergast, D. R. (2000). Training using the stroke frequency-velocity relationship to combine biomechanical and metabolic paradigms. Journal of Swimming Research, 14, 9-17.

  71. LOW BACK PAIN IS RARE IN SERIOUS COMPETITIVE SWIMMERS

    Cabri, J., Fernandes, R., Alves, F., & Burton, K. (2001). The prevalence of low back pain in swimmers: A comparison between elite and leisure-time swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(5), Supplement abstract 463.

  72. EVENING PERFORMANCES ARE BETTER THAN MORNING PERFORMANCES

    Arnett, M. G. (2001). Effects of prolonged and reduced warm-ups on diurnal variation in body temperature and swim performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(5), Supplement abstract 893.

  73. YOUNG FEMALE SWIMMERS NEED NUTRITIONAL INFORMATION

    Henriquez, M. M. George, V. A., & Castellanos, V. H. (2001). Eating attitudes and weight control behaviors of adolescent female swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(5), Supplement abstract 1603.

  74. US SWIMMING'S APPROACH TO ALTITUDE TRAINING AND ITS VARIATIONS

    Rushall, B. S. (April, 2002). On US Swimming's promotion of altitude, Live-high--Train-low, and nitrogen tent recovery and training protocols. Commentary.

  75. HIGH TRAINING AND DRYLAND TRAINING DEMANDS ARE NOT RELATED TO IMPROVEMENTS IN SWIMMING PERFORMANCE

    Sokolovas, G. (2000). Demographic information. In The Olympic Trials Project (Chapter 1). Colorado Springs, CO: United States Swimming. [On-line. Available at http://www.usa-swimming.org/programs/template.pl?opt=news&pubid=941].

  76. A MESH SWIMMING CAP SHOULD BE WORN IN WARM WATER

    Matsunami, M., & Taimura, A. (2002). Effects of swim caps on head and body temperature during swimming. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 131.

  77. HEIGHT IS IMPORTANT FOR AGE-GROUP SPRINT SWIMMING

    Simmons, S. E., Pettibone, A. J., & Stager, J. M. (2002). Determinants of sprint swim performance in adolescent swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 151.

  78. RESTRICTED BREATHING TRAINING COMPROMISES THE TRAINING RESPONSE

    Drummond, M. J., VanNess, J. M., Ciccolella, M., & West, S. (2002). Metabolic and biomechanic changes during controlled frequency breathing swimming. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(5), Supplement abstract 867.

  79. SPECIFICITY OF TRAINING EFFECTS IN SWIMMING

    Rinehardt, K F., Axtell, R. S., Kleine, S., Upson, D., Woznica, D., Quill, T., Weitzner, J. M., Ordway, P., Kovi, D. L., & Carabetta, J. L. (2002). Response in performance, metabolic indices, and perception during a season of collegiate competitive swim training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1099.

  80. HYPOXIC TRAINING AT SEA LEVEL DOES NOT ADD ANYTHING EXTRA TO NORMAL SWIMMING TRAINING

    Truijens, M. J., Dow, J., Cabayo, J., Palmer, D., Witkowski, S., Chase, P., Toussaint, H. M., & Levine, B. D. (2002). The effect of high intensity hypoxic training on sea-level swimming performances. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1337.

  81. SWIMMING ECONOMY IS BEST AT VELOCITIES THAT REFLECT THE MAJORITY OF SWIMMING TRAINING EXPERIENCES

    Reer, R., Ramcke, C., Rudolph, K., & Braumann, K. M. (2002). Differences in swim economy and metabolic-cardiocirculatory parameters between endurance and sprint swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1339.

  82. IMPROVING TECHNIQUE IS THE BEST AVENUE FOR IMPROVING COLLEGIATE SWIMMING PERFORMANCES

    D'Acquisto, L. J., & Berry, J. (May, 2002). Energetic and technique characteristics of trained collegiate male swimmers. Sixth IOC World Congress on Sport Sciences, abstract, p. 23.

  83. TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY AND PHYSIOLOGY CHANGE WITH INITIAL TRAINING

    Kamel, K. S., McLean, S. P., & Sharp, R. L. (May, 2002). Biomechanical and physiological adaptation to twelve weeks of competitive swimming training. Sixth IOC World Congress on Sport Sciences, abstract, p. 74.

  84. STRENGTH TRAINING ONLY IMPROVES STRENGTH TRAINING ACTIVITIES IN SWIMMERS

    Breed, R. V., Young, W. B., & McElroy, G. K. (September, 2000). The effect of a resistance-training program on the grab, swing, and track starts in swimming. 2000 Pre-Olympic Congress in Sports Medicine and Physical Education: International Congress on Sport Science. Brisbane, Australia. [On line at http://www.ausport.gov.au/fulltext/2000/preoly/abs325b.htm].

  85. TETHERED SWIMMING POWER IS RELATED TO SPRINT TIMES

    Patnott, J. R., Post, K., & Northius, M. E. (2003). Muscular power changes in collegiate swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1454.

  86. SWIMMING TRAINING REDUCES FORCE PRODUCTION CAPACITY

    Carl, D. L., Bales, E., Haubrich, C., Kirschling, M., Milnes, C., Vernon, A., & Winquist, J. (2003). Effect of high intensity versus high volume swim training on selected measures of fatigue. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 2065.

  87. ELITE SWIMMERS RESPOND TO TRAINING IN A PARTICULARLY INDIVIDUAL MANNER

    Avalos, M., Hellard, P., & Chatard, J-C. (2003). Modeling the training-performance relationship using a mixed model in elite swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35, 838-846.

  88. COACHES AND PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAINING ZONES

    Personal communication (1999) from Joel M Stager, Director of the Counsilman Center for Swimming Research, Department of Kinesiology, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana.

  89. NITROGEN TENTS -- WHERE ARE THEY?

    Rushall thoughts, August 2004.

  90. FOCUSED TRAINING IMPROVES PERFORMANCE BUT REGENERATION MIGHT BE INADEQUATE

    Wilkinson, J. G., Urhausen, A., Scheidt, A., Coen, B., & Kinderman, W. (2003). Performance and hormonal responses of competitive swimmers to high-intensity interval training and regeneration. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1834.

  91. SIMULATED ALTITUDE TRAINING DOES NOT BENEFIT SWIMMERS

    Truijens, M. J., Palmer, D., Witkowski, S., Chase, P., van Asseldonk, E., Toussaint, H. M., & Levine, B. D. (2003). The effect of high intensity, hypoxic training on VO2 kinetics in well trained swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1861.

  92. ELEMENTARY SCHOOL IS THE BEST TIME TO LEARN SKILLS

    Kokudo, S., Nishijima, T., Suzuki, K., Ozawa, H., Ohsawa, S., Matsuda, H., Noda, Y., Yagi, N., Kagaya, A., Naito, H., Aoki, J., & Kobayashi, K. (2003). Optimal age of swimming and gymnastic skill development on Japanese children and youths. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 108.

  93. TWO FORMS OF COUNTERMOVEMENT JUMPING IMPROVE JUMPING PERFORMANCE

    Basgier, M. K., Karkoska, B. W., & Grandjean, P. W. (2004). The effectiveness of half- vs. parallel-squat countermovement jump training on power indices in collegiate swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 398.

  94. AQUATIC PLYOMETRICS DO NOT IMPROVE SWIMMERS' PERFORMANCES

    Wilson, M., Adams, K. J., & Stamford, B. A. (2004). Aquatic plyometrics and the freestyle flip turn. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 1432.

  95. ILLNESS DURING TAPER IS LIKELY TO IMPAIR SWIMMING PERFORMANCE

    Pyne, D.B., Fricker, P. A., Gleeson, M., & Hopkins, W. G. (2004). The practical significance of illness on competitive performance in international swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 1766.

  96. AGE-GROUP SWIMMERS NEED TECHNIQUE TO PERFORM WELL IN SPRINTS

    Watanabe, M., & Takai, S. (2005). Analysis of factors on development of performance in young swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37(5), Supplement abstract 416.

  97. RECOVERY TECHNIQUES DO NOT AFFECT SWIMMERS' RECOVERY

    Al Nawaiseh, A. M., Bishop, P., Pritchett, R. C., Porter, S., & McIlquham. (2005). Short-term recovery – Impact of antioxidant vitamins, protein supplement, Ibuprofen, and ice. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37(5), Supplement abstract 239.

  98. TAPER RESTORES POWER IN 7-10 DAYS IN SWIMMERS

    Trinity, J. D., Pahnke, M. D., & Coyle, E. F. (2005). Maximal power measured during a taper in collegiate swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37(5), Supplement abstract 249.

  99. PROBABLE CAUSES OF SHOULDER PAIN IN ELITE SWIMMERS

    Pollard, B. (January, 2001). The prevalence of shoulder pain in elite level British swimmers and the effects of training technique. British Swimming Coaches and Teachers Association, [http://www.bscta.com/]

  100. SUBMAXIMAL SWIMMING PRODUCES BEST LACTATE REMOVAL IN RECOVERY

    Neric, F. B., Beam, W., & Brown, L. E. (2006). The effects of electrical stimulation and submaximal swimming on blood lactate following a maximal effort 200 yard front crawl. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1405.

  101. SWIMMERS HAVE NOTABLE CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS THAT COULD AFFECT PERFORMANCE

    Kline, C. E., Youngstedt, S. D., Devlin, T. M., Lee, A. Y., Zielinski, M. R., Moore, T. A., Davis, M. J., & Durstine, J. L. (2006). Circadian variation in swim performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1543.

  102. POST-WARM-UP PASSIVITY NEGATIVELY EFFECTS SUBSEQUENT SWIMMING

    Zochowski, T., Johnson, E.,& Sleivert, G. (2006). Effects of varying post-warm-up recovery time on 200 m time trial swim performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1560.

  103. ANAEROBIC WORK CAPACITY NOT RELATED TO SWIMMING PERFORMANCES; TAPER IMPROVES PERFORMANCES

    Papoti, M., Zagatto, A. M., Cunha, S. A., Martins, E. B., Manchado, F. B., Freitas, P. B., Araujol, G. G., & Gobatto, C. A. (2006). Effects of taper on critical velocity, anaerobic work capacity and distance performances in trained swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1574.

  104. THREE IS BETTER THAN FOUR WEEK TAPER IN SWIMMING

    Trinity, J. D., Pahnke, M. D. & Coyle, E. F. (2003). Effect of taper duration on the time course for changes in maximal power of elite female swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1622.

  105. STROKE FREQUENCY MULTIPLIED BY STROKE LENGTH IS A GOOD INDEX OF SWIMMING TIME

    Osorio, A., & De Leon, L. G. (2006). Stroke analysis during a maximal swimming speed test in children and adults. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 2681.

  106. SWIMMERS PERFORM BETTER AT NIGHT WHEN COMPARED TO MORNINGS

    Kline, C. E., Durstine, J. L., Davis, J. M., Moore, T. A., Devlin, T. M., Zielinski, M. R., & Youngstedt, S. D. (2007). Circadian variation in swim performance. Journal of Applied Physiology, 102, 641-649.

  107. TRAINING EMPHASIS ON KICKING DOES NOT IMPROVE FREE-SWIMMING PERFORMANCE

    Konstantaki, M., & Winter, E. M. (2007). The effectiveness of a leg-kicking training program on performance and physiological measure of competitive swimmers. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 2, 37-48.

  108. INSPIRATORY MUSCLE WARM-UP ENHANCES 200-m TIMES

    Cruickshank, A. J., Peyrebrune, M. C., & Caine, M. P. (2007). Inspiratory muscle warm-up improves performance in elite swimmers. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number 1435.

  109. INSPIRATORY MUSCLE WARM-UP ENHANCES 200-m TIMES

    Cruickshank, A. J., Peyrebrune, M. C., & Caine, M. P. (2007). Inspiratory muscle warm-up improves performance in elite swimmers. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number 1435.

  110. SPRINT SWIMMERS NOT AS EFFICIENT AS ENDURANCE SWIMMERS

    Reer, R., Ramcke, C., Ziegler, M. von Duvillard, S. P., & Braumann, K.-M. (2007). Spiroergometry in the swim flume: Comparison of stroke rate between sprint and endurance swimmers. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number 1451.

  111. INDIVIDUALITY OF TRAINING RESPONSES VERIFIES THE NEED TO MONITOR TRAINING AND TO PERFORM TRAINING EXPERIMENTS USING SINGLE-SUBJECT OBSERVATIONS

    Bartlett, M. L., & Etzel, E. (2007). A single case design approach to monitoring the effects of intense training on immune function and mood state in swimmers. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number 2014.

  112. CHAMPION/MEDALIST SWIMMERS TRAIN MORE THAN NATIONAL LEVEL SWIMMERS

    Kjendlie, P.-L. (2007). Career development of international top level swimmers versus national level swimmers. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number 2270.

  113. EVEN-PACING IS THE BEST PERFORMANCE STRATEGY

    Hettinga, F. J., De Koning, J. J., Meijer, E., Teunissen, L, & Foster, C. (2007). Effect of pacing strategy on energy expenditure during a 1500-m cycling time trial. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 39, 2212-2218.

  114. A FINAL MONTH OF BOOSTED OVERLOAD TRAINING PRODUCES A BETTER TAPER BUT REQUIRES A LONGER TAPER

    Thomas, L., Mujika, I., & Busson, T. (2008). A model study of optimal training reduction during pre-event taper in elite swimmers. Journal of Sports Sciences, 26, 643-652.

  115. ACCELEROMETER MEASURES DISTANCE AND VELOCITY IN A TRAINING SESSION

    Hinman, M. G., Wright, B. V., Scofield, E. W., Lundgren, E. A., & Stager, J. M. (2008). Use of accelerometers as a means of quantifying swim training load. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis, Presentation Number 2121.

  116. MALE SWIMSUIT SELECTION VARIES BY STROKE

    Matsunami, M., & Taunura, A. (2008). Trend to swimsuit choices of male swimmers in the competition from 2001 to 2007. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis, Presentation Number 2186.

  117. RESISTIVE RESPIRATORY MUSCLE TRAINING IMPROVES PERFORMANCE

    Ray, A. D., Pendergast, D. R., Simpson, A., & Lundgren, C. E. (2008). Respiratory muscle training against a resistance improves respiratory and underwater swimming performance. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis, Presentation Number 2110.

  118. TAPER REQUIRES PERFORMANCE QUALITY TO BE MAINTAINED

    Trinity, J. D., Pahnke, M. D., Sterkel, J. A., & Coyle, E. F. (2008). Maximal power and performance during a swim taper. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 29, 500-506.

  119. TRADITIONAL PERIODIZATION OF TRAINING IS NO LONGER RELEVANT FOR MODERN SERIOUS ATHLETES

    Issurin, V. (2008). Block periodization versus traditional training theory: a review. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 48, 65-75.

  120. TRAINING ON A POWER RACK IMPROVES PERFORMANCE ON A POWER RACK

    Wright, B. V., Brammer, C. L., & Stager, J. M. (2009). Five week assessment of in-water power output in competitive swimmers. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. Presentation Number 1828.

  121. RUNNING AND SWIMMING RACE PACING ARE MORE COMPLEX THAN COMMONLY BELIEVED

    Vesbach, S. J., de Konig, J. J., Lucia, A., Porcari, J. P., & Foster, C. (2009). Unique aspects of the pacing pattern in 800 m running and 200 m swimming. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. Presentation Number 1829.

  122. OLYMPIC SWIMMING PERFORMANCES DO NOT ALWAYS IMPROVE IN A CONSISTENT MANNER

    Brammer, C. L., Tanner, D. A., & Stager, J. M. (2009). Identification of bias in the natural progression of swim performance. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. Presentation Number 1843.

  123. THE CURRENT AGE GROUP STRUCTURE COULD BE IMPROVED

    Kojima, K., Brammer, c. L., & Stager, J. M. (2009). Age classification in USA Swimming are current competitive age groups appropriate? ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. Presentation Number 1844.

  124. SWIMMING TRAINING EMPHASIZING INTENSITY IS BETTER THAN A VOLUME-ORIENTED PROGRAM IN AGE-GROUP SWIMMERS

    Sperlich, B., Haegele, M., Heilemann, I., Zinner, C., De Marees, M., Achtzen, S., & Mester, J. (2009). Weeks of high intensity vs. volume training in 9-12 year-old swimmers.ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. Presentation Number 959.

  125. TOO MUCH HARD EXERCISE IN WARM-UP COULD REDUCE PERFORMANCE CAPABILITIES IN SWIMMING EVENTS

    Pringle, J., Hunt, J., Dekerle, J., & Brickly, G. (2009). Critical speed, anaerobic distance capacity and swimming performance after prior heavy and severe exercise. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. Presentation Number 555.

  126. THE BANNISTER MODEL OF TRAINING HAS DEFICIENCIES

    Hellard, P., Avalos, M., Lacoste, L., Barale, F., Chatard, J., & Millet, G. P. (2006). Assessing the limitations of the Banister model in monitoring training. Journal of Sports Science, 24, 509-520.

  127. THE TRAINING EFFECTS OF SWIMMING ARE PARTICULARLY SPECIFIC

    Roels, B., Schmitt, L., Libicz, S., Bentley, D., Richalet, J_P., & Millet, G. (2005). Specificity of VO2max and the ventilatory threshold in free swimming and cycle ergometry: comparison between triathletes and swimmers. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 39, 965-968.

  128. PASSIVE RECOVERY IS BEST WHEN SWIMMING SPRINT SETS

    Toubekis, A. G., Smilios, I., Bogdanis, G. C., Mavridis, G., & Tokmakidis, S. P. (2006). Effect of different intensities of active recovery on sprint swimming performance. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 31, 709-716.

  129. LONG DELAYS AFTER A WARM-UP REDUCE ITS BENEFITS

    Zochowski, T., Johnson, E., & Sleivert, G. G. (2007). Effects of varying post-warm-up recovery time on 200-m time-trial swim performance. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 2, 201-211.

  130. LONG-COURSE SWIMMING IS HARDER THAN SHORT-COURSE SWIMMING

    Keskinen, O. P., Keskinen, K. L., & Mero, A. A. (2007). Effect of pool length on blood lactate, heart rate, and velocity in swimming. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 28, 407-413.

  131. EXERCISE ACTIVITY IN RECOVERY IS BETTER THAN REST FOR MAINTAINING PERFORMANCE POTENTIAL

    Felix, S. D., Manos, T. M., Jarvis, A. T., Jensen, B. E., & Headley, S.A. (1997). Swimming performance following different recovery protocols in female collegiate swimmers. Journal of Swimming Research, 12, 1-6.

  132. NON-SPECIFIC MODE ACTIVE RECOVERY PROMOTES LACTATE REMOVAL

    Denadai, B., Guglielmo, L., & Denadai, M. (2000). Effect of exercise mode on the blood lactate removal during recovery of high-intensity exercise. Biology of Sport, 17, 37-45.

  133. IN-WATER RECOVERY IS BEST FOR SWIMMING REPETITIONS

    Buchheit, M., Al Haddad, H., Chivot, A., Leprêtre, P. M., Ahmaidi, S., & Laursen, P. B. (2009). Effect of in- versus out-of-water recovery on repeated swimming sprint performance. European Journal of Applied Physiology, October 1. [E-pub ahead of print].

  134. JUSTIFICATION FOR INSPIRATORY MUSCLE TRAINING IN SPRINT SWIMMERS

    Jakovljevic, D. G., & McConnell, A. K. (2009). Influence of different breathing frequencies on the severity of inspiratory muscle fatigue induced by high-intensity front crawl swimming. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 23, 1169-1174.

  135. CRITICAL SPEED SWIMMING IS INTENSE

    Dekerle, J., Brickley, G., Alberty, M., & Pelayo, P. (2009). Characterizing the slope of the distance-time relationship in swimming. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, July 2 [E-publication].

  136. SLOWING IN SWIMMING RACES IS ASSOCIATED WITH A LOWERING OF STROKE RATE

    Toussaint, H. M., Carol, A., Kranenborg, H., & Truijens, M. J. (2006). Effect of fatigue on stroking characteristics in an arms-only 100-m front-crawl race. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38, 1635-1642.

  137. ARMS-ONLY SWIMMING TRAINING PRODUCES TRAINING EFFECTS BUT THEY DO NOT TRANSFER TO FREE-SWIMMING

    Konstantaki, M., Winter, E; & Swaine, I. (2009). Effects of arms-only swimming training on performance, movement economy, and aerobic power. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 3, [on line].

  138. FLOTATION SUITS OF NO BENEFIT IN SWIMMING INSTRUCTION

    Kjendlie, P. L. (2009). Swimming abilities are not enhanced by using a flotation suit for advanced beginners in deep water swimming teaching. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

  139. MALE SWIMMING PERFORMANCES DECREASE WITH AGE BUT MORE SO IN THE OLDER AGE GROUPS

    Zamparo, P., Massei, E., Gatta, G., & Benelli, P. (2009). Propelling efficiency in master swimmers. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

  140. PROPELLING ABILITY TEST NOT OF MUCH VALUE FOR ESTIMATING SWIMMING POTENTIAL

    Karsai, I., Silva, A., Garrido, N., Louro, H., Leitao, L., Magyar, F., Angyan, L., & Alves, F. (2009). Comparative method to estimate propelling ability. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

  141. SUPPLEMENT USE BY PORTUGUESE SWIMMERS

    Teixeira, V. H., Sousa, M., & Moreira, P. (2009). The use of nutritional supplements by elite Portuguese swimmers. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

  142. REDUCTIONS IN TRAINING LOADS IMPROVE PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS

    Simola, R., Samulski, D. M., & Prado, L. S. (2009). Physiological and psychological aspects of swimmers in different training periods. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

  143. HIGH-INTENSITY TRAINING MORE EFFICIENT AND BETTER THAN HIGH-VOLUME TRAINING IN AGE-GROUP ATHLETES

    Sperlich, B., Haegele, M., Achtzehn, S., De Marees, M., & Mester, J. (2009). High intensity exercise in children: Results from different disciplines. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

  144. INTERVAL TRAINING PROMOTES STROKE RETENTION BETTER THAN CONTINUOUS TRAINING

    Pelarigo, J. G. Denadai, B. S. Fernandes, B. D., Santiago, D. R., César, T. E., Barbosa, L. F., & Greco, C. C. (2010). Effect of time and exercise mode on metabolic, stroking parameters, and stroke phase responses in continuous and intermittent exercises. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  145. NON-FUNCTIONAL OVERREACHING IN SWIMMERS IS MOST ASSOCIATED WITH EXCESSIVE TRAINING VOLUMES

    Matos, N., Williams, C., & Winsley, R. (2009). Non-functional overreaching in young swimmers over an eight-month competitive season. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27 .

  146. PRE-COOLING IMPROVES DISTANCE-SWIMMING PERFORMANCE

    Kocjan, N., Bogerd, C. P., Allenspach, P., Perret, C., & Rossi, R. M. (2009). Does precooling improve 1,500 m swimming performance? A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

  147. ACTIVE RECOVERY WORKS FOR SWIMMING NO MATTER WHAT THE EXERCISE MODE

    Plusch, T., O'Brien, J., Whitebay, C., Wright, S., Wygand, J., & Otto, R. M. (June 03, 2010). The effect of three different modes of recovery on lactate removal rate following a maximal effort swim in masters level swimmers. Presentation 2388 at the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; June 2-5.

  148. NO SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT ALTITUDE TRAINING AS BEING BENEFICIAL TO SWIMMING PERFORMANCE

    Rodríguez, F.A. (2010). Training at real and simulated altitude in swimming: Too high expectations? A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  149. HIGH-SPEED INTERVAL SWIMMING JUSTIFIES RACE-PACE TRAINING SPEEDS

    Beidaris, N., Botonis, P., & Platanou, T. (2010). Physiological and performance characteristics of 200 m continuous swimming and 4 x 50 m "broken" swimming with different interval time demands. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  150. SHORT REST PERIODS HAVE ONLY A MINOR EFFECT ON REPEATED SWIMMING PERFORMANCE

    Evangelidis, P., Stavrinou, P., Tambaki, M., & Theos, A. (2009). Influence of two different rest intervals on fatigue during maximal swimming. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

  151. AGE-GROUP SWIMMER PERFORMANCES DO NOT PREDICT EVENTUAL ADULT PERFORMANCES

    Costa, M. J., Marinho, D. A., Reis, V. M., Silva, A. J., Bragada, J. A., & Barbosa, T.M. (2010). Stability and prediction of 100-m breaststroke performance during elite swimmers' careers. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  152. DEPENDING UPON RACE DISTANCE, AGE-GROUP SWIMMERS REPRODUCE PACING PATTERNS IN DIFFERENT WAYS

    Skorski, S., Faude, O., Rausch, K., & Meyer, T. (2010). Reproducibility of pacing strategies in high-level junior swimmers. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  153. LONG TERM ATHLETE DEVELOPMENT MODEL FOR BRITISH SWIMMING IS A RECIPE FOR CONFUSION

    Lang, M., & Light, R. (2010). Interpreting and implementing the long term athlete development model: English swimming coaches' views on the (swimming) LTAD in practice. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 5(3), 389-402.

  154. SWIMMING LORE AND MISINFORMATION IS STILL VERY PREVALENT IN HIGH LEVELS OF THE SPORT

    Greyson, I., Kelly, S., Peyrebrune, M., & Furniss, B. (2010). Interpreting and implementing the long term athlete development model: English swimming coaches' views on the (swimming) LTAD in practice – A commentary. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 5(3), 403-406.

  155. RACE-PACE WORK AND JUDICIOUS WORK AND RECOVERY SETS SHOULD GOVERN THE PROGRAMMING OF TRAINING SETS

    Treffene, B. (2010). Interpreting and implementing the long term athlete development model: English swimming coaches' views on the (swimming) LTAD in practice – A commentary. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 5(3), 407-412.

  156. ACCURATE KNOWLEDGE OF PRACTICE START TIMES PRODUCES GREATER STARTING IMPROVEMENTS THAN REPETITION ALONE

    De la Fuente, B., & Arellano, R. (2010). Effect of specific training on swimming start performance. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  157. INTENSE TRAINING IS BETTER THAN ENDURANCE TRAINING FOR 100 m PERFORMANCE AND DOES NOT COMPROMISE ENDURANCE CAPACITY

    Johansen, L., Jørgensen, S., Kilen, A., Larsson, T. H., Jørgensen, M., Rocha, B., Nordsborg, N. B. (2010). Increased training intensity and reduced volume for 12 weeks increases maximal swimming speed on a sprint distance in young elite swimmers. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  158. 50-m PERFORMANCE, STROKE LENGTH, AND STROKE INDEX CHANGE WITH AGE BUT ARE GENDER SPECIFIC

    Morales, E., Arellano, R., Femia, P., & Mercade, J. (2010). Regression analysis model applied to age-group swimmers: study of stroke rate, stroke length and stroke index. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  159. TETHERED SWIMMING PERFORMANCE IS ASSOCIATED WITH 50 m PERFORMANCE IN YOUNG SWIMMERS

    Douda, H., Toubekis, A., Georgiou, C., & Gourgoulis, V., & Tokmakidis, S. (2010). Predictors of performance in pre-pubertal and pubertal male and female swimmers. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  160. THE TESTING OF SWIMMERS SHOULD ONLY BE CONDUCTED IN SWIMMING POOLS

    Zuoziene, I. J., & Poderys, J. L. (2010). The informativeness of field tests and laboratory assessments in forecasting the actual performance of swimmers. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  161. 2008 PERFORMANCES WERE UNUSUAL

    Stager, J. M., Brammer, C. L., & Tanner, D. A. (2010). Identification of a bias in the natural progression of swim performance. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  162. INTERVAL SWIMMING IS MORE CONSISTENT AND OF BETTER QUALITY THAN CONTINUOUS SWIMMING

    Oliveira, M. F., Caputo, F., Dekerle, J., Denadai, B. S., & Greco, C. C. (2010). Technical and physiological changes during continuous vs. intermittent swims at and above maximal lactate steady state. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  163. RESISTED SPRINTING ALTERS ARM ACTION

    Gourgoulis, V., Aggeloussis, N., Mavridis, G., Boli, A., Toubekis, A. G.., Kasimatis, P., Vezos, N., & Mavrommatis, G. (2010) . The acute effect of front crawl sprint-resisted swimming on the direction of the resultant force of the hand. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  164. ARMS-ONLY AND LEGS-ONLY SWIMMING ENERGY DEMANDS ARE LESS THAN WHEN FREE-SWIMMING

    Rodríguez, F. A., Lätt, E., Jürimäe, J., Mäestu, J., Purge, P., Rämson, R., Haljaste, K., Keskinen, K. L., & Jürimäe, T. (2010). Oxygen uptake kinetics in all-out arm stroke, leg kicking and whole stroke front crawl 100-m swims. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  165. TRAINED SWIMMERS' SHOULDER ROTATORS ARE UNBALANCED

    Batalha, N., Tomás-Carús, P., Fernandes, O., Marinho, D. A., & Silva, A. J. (2010). Water training effects shoulder rotator strength in young swimmers. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  166. LAND-STRENGTH MODERATELY CORRELATED TO 25-YARD AND TETHERED SWIMMING

    Carl, D. L., Leslie, N., Dickerson, T., Griffin, B., & Marksteiner, A. (2010). Correlation between dry-land strength measurements and in water force generation. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  167. CONFOUNDED STUDY PRODUCES DANGEROUS IMPLICATIONS

    Hohmann, A., Fehr, U., Reuss, A., Kieser, S., & Straub, S. (2010). Specific strength training and start performance in swimming. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  168. LONG DELAYS BETWEEN WARM-UPS AND EVENTS NEGATE WARM-UP EFFECTS

    West, D. J., Dietzig, B. M., Bracken, R. M., Cunningham, D. J., Crewther, B. T., Cook, C. J., & Kilduff, L. P. (2012). Influence of post-warm-up recovery time on swim performance in international swimmers. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 15, 6 pages (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S144024401200120X).

  169. DRAG SUITS OF NO VALUE

    Dragunas, A. J., Dickey, J. P., & Nolte, V. W. (2012). The effect of drag suit training on 50-m freestyle performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 26(4), 989-994.

  170. SWIMMING PERFORMANCES AFFECTED SIMILARLY BY STATIC STRETCHING AND DYNAMIC WARM-UPS

    Whitehead, J. R., Moran, M. P., Guggenheimer, J. D., & Brinkert, R. H. (2012). The effects of static stretching warm-up versus dynamic warm-up on sprint swim performance. Presentation 994 at the 59th Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, San Francisco, California; May 29-June 2, 2012.

  171. TRAINING STUDIES WITHOUT CONTROL GROUPS DO NOT TELL MUCH

    Godard, M. P., Godard, K. M., & Jessen, D. (2012). Ultrasound measured left ventricular strain in competitive youth swimmers: Acute and chronic effects of training. Presentation 1121 at the 59th Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, San Francisco, California; May 29-June 2, 2012.

  172. IN-WATER BETTER THAN OUT-OF-WATER RECOVERY FOR SPRINT SWIMMING

    Zadeh, M. H., Roshan, V. D., Babaei, H., Shirinbayan, V., & Arendt-Nielsen, L. (2012). In vs. out of water recovery methods, performance and inflammation response: A comparative study. Presentation 1341 at the 59th Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, San Francisco, California; May 29-June 2, 2012.

  173. DIFFERENT DURATIONS OF STEP TESTS DO NOT ALTER TECHNIQUE FEATURES

    Fernandes, R. J., Ribeiro, J. Sousa, A., Sousa, M., Abraldes, A., Ferragut, C., Figueiredo, P., & Vilas-Boas, J. P. (2012). Kinematic comparison of different step lengths in a swimming incremental protocol. Presentation 1908 at the 59th Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, San Francisco, California; May 29-June 2, 2012.

  174. EARLY ENDURANCE TRAINING IMPROVEMENTS OCCUR QUICKLY BUT ARE NOT RELATED TO COMPETITIVE PERFORMANCES

    Matsunami, M., Taimura, A., & Mizobe, B. (2012). The role of high volume endurance training in competitive swimming. Presentation 1564 at the 59th Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, San Francisco, California; May 29-June 2, 2012.

  175. "HARD" TRADITIONAL TRAINING MIGHT NOT PROMOTE SWIMMING STRENGTH AND MAY BE DETRIMENTAL TO THE PERFORMANCE OF A LARGE PROPORTION OF A SQUAD

    Havriluk, R, (2013). Seasonal variations in swimming force and training adaptation. Journal of Swimming Research, 21, pp. 8.

  176. LAND-TRAINING MIGHT NOT HALT LOSS OF SWIMMING STRENGTH IN A "HARD TRAINING" PROGRAM

    Havriluk, R, (2013). Seasonal variations in swimming force and training adaptation. Journal of Swimming Research, 21, pp. 8.

  177. TRAINING PERSPECTIVES OF DR. DAVID COSTILL ON STRENGTH, TRAINING VOLUME, AND TAPERING

    Costill, D. L. (1998). Training adaptations for optimal performance. Invited lecture at the Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming VIII Conference, Jyvaskulla, Finland.

  178. FEMALE SWIMMERS OUTPERFORMED MALES AT THE LONDON OLYMPIC GAMES

    Brammer, C., & Stager, J. (2013). Swimsuit constraints favored women at the 2012 Olympic swim competition. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 45(5), Supplement abstract number 1763.

  179. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN SWIMMING EVENTS

    Stevens, A. A., Senefeld, J., Joyner, M. J., & Hunter, S. K. (2013). Sex differences in the world’s fastest swimming with advanced age. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 45(5), Supplement abstract number 2053.

  180. NO DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SWIMMING AND DRYLAND WARM-UPS

    Romney, N. C., & Nethery, V. M. (1993). The effects of swimming and dryland warm-ups on 100-yard freestyle performance in collegiate swimmers. The Journal of Swimming Research, 9, 5-9.

  181. AN ACTIVE COOL-DOWN PRODUCES FASTER LACTATE REMOVAL

    Beckett, K. D., & Steigbigel, K. (1993). Effects of warm down techniques on the removal of lactic acid following maximal human performance. The Journal of Swimming Research, 9, 32-35.

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