Rinehardt, K F., Axtell, R. S., Kleine, S., Upson, D., Woznica, D., Quill, T., Weitzner, J. M., Ordway, P., Kovi, D. L., & Carabetta, J. L. (2002). Response in performance, metabolic indices, and perception during a season of collegiate competitive swim training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1099.

Collegiate swimmers (M = 18; F = 12) were monitored over 22 weeks of training. Distance and non-distance swimmers performed different training volumes. Aerobic training was 85% of training volume. Aerobic velocity, blood lactate, and perceived exertion were measured after a maximal paced 3,000 yd swim and anaerobic velocity and blood lactate were measured after a 6 x 100 yd maximal specialty stroke set. Those measures were made four times over the training period. Velocity at 4 mmol was measured five times over the same period.

Aerobic velocity improved at each stage of the training period. Anaerobic velocity and velocity at 4 mmol also improved. Blood lactate after anaerobic swimming was highest at the end of the training period. Training generally was effective for improving aerobic adaptation but not as effective for anaerobic work.

Implication. Swimming training that was largely aerobic produced more marked changes in aerobic adaptation than anaerobic adaptation. This supports the Principle of Training Specificity.

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