Houmard, J. A., Johns, R. A., Smith, L. L., Wells, J. M., Kobe, R. W., & McGoogan, S. A. (1991). The effect of warm-up on responses to intense exercise. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 12, 480-483.

Eight highly trained collegiate swimmers performed a 400 yard swim 5 min after several warm-up conditions: (a) no warm-up, (b) mild-intensity 1500 yard swim, (c) intensity specific (4 x 50 m; 1 min rest), and (d) a combination of the b and c conditions. Physiological measures were taken during each test swim.

The no-warm-up condition produced a swim which had a shortened stroke length and elevated lactate and heart rate measures during recovery when compared to the mild-intensity and combination conditions. Stroke length was similar in the no-warm-up and intensity specific conditions.

Implication. This study suggests that a warm-up of mild intensity and long duration is beneficial for swimming. Intensity specific work does not seem to be a vital component.

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