Volume 2(2): October, 1996
This second issue of Volume 2 of Coaching Science Abstracts reviews articles concerned with goal-setting. This is a topic that is treated very lightly by many coaches and athletes. However, when the impact of goal-setting on performance and participation is realized, it can be deemed worthy of much greater and detailed attention.
Goal-setting is a set of skills that involves using goals in particular ways to achieve a variety of effects. The simple erroneous notion that there is only one type of goal-setting and that all an athlete needs is an awareness of its existence is too prevalent in the practices and literature of coaching.
This set of abstracts should awaken coaches to the recognition of the importance, scope of effect, and different requirements of the various types of goals that are necessary to produce a more complete sporting experience for and to enhance the performances of athletes.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
GOAL ACHIEVEMENT BECAUSE OF TEAM SUPPORTZaleski, Z. (1988). Close relationships and acting for self-set goals. European Journal of Social Psychology, 18, 191-194.
TEAM GOALS AFFECT PERFORMANCE DEPENDING UPON HOW THE GROUP IS PERFORMINGForward, J., & Zander, A. (1971). Choice of unattainable group goals and effects on performance. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 6, 184-199.
WHAT HAPPENS WHEN GROUP GOALS ARE ADDED TO INDIVIDUAL GOALSWeingart, L. R., & Weldon, E. (1991). Processes that mediate the relationship between a group goal and group member performance. Human Performance, 4, 33-54.
WHEN TEAMS LOSE Gill, D. L. (1980). Success-failure attributions in competitive groups: An exception to egocentrism. Journal of Sport Psychology, 2, 106-114.
GROUP GOALS ARE AN ADDED INCENTIVELocke, E. A. (1968). Toward a theory of task motivation and incentives. Organization Behavior and Human Performance, 3, 157-189.
GOAL-SETTING AND PRODUCTIVITYUmstot, D. D., Bell, C. H., & Mitchell, T. R. (1976). Effects of job enrichment and task goals on satisfaction and productivity: Implications for job design. Journal of Applied Psychology, 61, 379-394.
GROUP-SELECTED STANDARDS (GOALS)Dickerson, E. A., & Creedon, C. F. (1981). Self-selection of standards by children: The relative effectiveness of pupil-selected and teacher-selected standards of performance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 14, 425-433.
EFFECTS OF GROUP-SET GOALSLawler, E. E., & Hackman, J. R. (1969). Impact of employee participation in the development of pay incentive plans: A field experiment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 53, 457-471.
TYPES OF GOALS
GOALS - MASTERY VERSUS OUTCOMESDuda, J. L. (1989). Goal perspectives, participation, and persistence in sports. International Journal of Sports Psychology, 20(1), 42-56.
TYPES OF GOALS Rushall thoughts, 1992.
GOALS/PROCESS OUTCOME EFFECTSHarackiewicz, J. M., Abrahams, S., & Wagerman, R. (1987). Performance evaluation and intrinsic motivation: the effects of evaluative focus, rewards, and achievement orientation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 1015-1023.
PROCESS GOALSHarackiewicz, J. M., Sansone, C., & Manderlink, G. (1985). Competence, achievement orientation, and intrinsic motivation: a process analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 493-508.
MULTIPLE ARE BETTER THAN SINGLE GOALS FOR AFFECTING PERFORMANCEAtkinson, J. W., & Reitman, W. R. (1956). Performance as a function of motive strength and expectancy of goal attainment. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 53, 361-366.
TOUGH GOALS WORKMesch, D. J., Farh, J. L., & Podsakoff, P. M. (1994). Effects of feedback sign on group goal setting, strategies, and performance. Group and Organization Management, 19, 309-333.
CHARACTERISTICS OF GOALS THAT CHANGE PERFORMANCESteers, R. M., & Porter, L. W. (1974). The role of task-goal attributes in employee performance. Psychological Bulletin, 81, 434-452.
PERFORMANCE SEGMENTING: STRUCTURING FOR MORE EFFECTIVE GOAL-SETTINGRushall, B. S. (1996). Some determinants in human competitive performances: A psychological perspective. In K-W Kim (Ed.), Human performance determinants in sport (pp. 1-24). Seoul, Korea: Korean Society for Sport Psychology.
PROBLEMS WITH GOAL-SETTING RESEARCHLocke, E. A. (1991). Problems with goal-setting research in sports--and their solution. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 13, 311-316.
SELF-CONTROL FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH SUCCESSSpink, K. S., & Roberts, G. C. (1980). Ambiguity of outcome and causal attributions. Journal of Sport Psychology, 2, 237-244.
PERCEIVED VALUE OF ACTIVITYHeaps, R. A. (1978). Relating physical and psychological fitness: A psychological point of view. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 18, 399-408.
EXTERNAL PRESSURES ON GOAL-SETTING Mossholder, K. W. (1980). Effects of externally mediated goal setting on intrinsic motivation: A laboratory experiment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 65, 202-210.
EXPLICIT GOALSCox, L. E. (1972). The effects of social contract conditions on the tolerance of noxious stimulation. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.
INTENTIONS AND LEVEL OF PERFORMANCELocke, E. A. (1966). The relationship of intentions to level of performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 50, 60-66.
PERCEIVED TASK DIFFICULTYCampbell, D. J., & Ilgen, D. R. (1976). Additive effects of task difficulty and goal setting on subsequent performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 61, 319-324.
EFFORT AND GOALSDimitrova, S. (1970). Dependence of voluntary effort upon the magnitude of the goal and the way it is set in sportsmen. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 1, 29-33.
PERFORMANCE EXPECTATIONSIlgen, D. R. (1971). Satisfaction with performance as a function of the initial level of expected performance and the deviation from expectations. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 6, 345-361.
WHAT GOALS DOLocke, E. A., Shaw, K. N., Saari, L. M., & Latham, G. P. (1981). Goal setting and task performance: 1969-1980. Psychological Bulletin, 90, 125-152.
HOW GOALS ARE USED CHANGES WITH FAMILIARITYPoag-DuCharme, K. A., & Brawley, L. R. (1994). Perceptions of the behavioral influence of goals: A mediational relationship to exercise. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 6, 32-50.
SEGMENTING PERFORMANCE INTO INTERMEDIATE PERFORMANCE GOALS IMPROVES PERFORMANCEBotterill, C. (1977, September). Goal-setting and performance on an endurance task. Paper presented at the conference of the Canadian Association of Sports Sciences, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada .
THE NEED FOR RELATIVELY SHORT-TERM GOALSHouse, W. C. (1973). Performance expectancies and affect associated with outcomes as a function of time perspective. Journal of Research in Personality, 7, 277-288.
DIFFICULT GOAL STANDARDS INDUCE BETTER PERFORMANCESLocke, E. A., & Bryan, J. F. (1966). Cognitive aspects of psychomotor performance: The effects of performance goals on level of performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 50, 286-291.
GOALS CHANGE WORK EFFICIENCY WITHOUT AFFECTING PHYSIOLOGICAL COSTWilmore, J. (1970). Influence of motivation on physical work capacity and performance. In W. P. Morgan, (Ed.), Contemporary readings in sport psychology. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas .
SUCCESS AND FAILURE ATTRIBUTIONSBukowski, W. M., Jr., & Moore, D. (1980). Winners' and losers' attributions for success and failure in a series of athletic events. Journal of Sport Psychology, 2, 195-210.
EFFECT OF SUCCESS ON MOTIVATIONWeinberg, R. (1979). Intrinsic motivation in a competitive setting. Medicine and Science in Sports, 11, 146-149.
INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL REACTIONS TO FAILUREHouse, W. C. (1976). Effect of locus of control, expectancy confirmation-disconfirmation, and type of goal on causal attributions of failure. Journal of Research in Personality, 10, 279-292.
KNOWLEDGE OF RESULTSLocke, E. A., Cartledge, N., & Koeppel, J. (1968). Motivational effects of knowledge of results: A goal setting phenomenon. Psychological Bulletin, 70, 474-485.
KNOWLEDGE OF RESULTS, GOAL-SETTING, AND PERFORMANCELocke, E. A., & Bryan, J. F. (1966). The effects of goal-setting, rule learning, and knowledge of score on performance. American Journal of Psychology, 79, 451-457.
KNOWLEDGE OF RESULTS AND GOAL-SETTINGCummings, L. L., Schwab, D., & Rosen, M. (1971). Performance and knowledge of results as determinants of goal setting. Journal of Applied Psychology, 55, 526-530.
PERFORMANCE FEEDBACK AND SELF-SET GOALSErez, M. (1977). Feedback: A necessary condition for the goal setting-performance relationship. Journal of Applied Psychology, 62, 624-627.
PRACTICAL GOAL-SETTINGRushall, B. S. (1995). Introduction to goal-setting skills. In B. S. Rushall, Mental skills training for sports (pp. 3.1-3.6). Spring Valley, CA: Sports Science Associates.
GOAL-SETTING INVENTORY FOR SPORTS Fisdel, J. G. (1988). An assessment tool for goal-setting in sporting environments. Unpublished master's thesis, San Diego State University, San Diego, California .
COMPUTER ANALYSIS OF THE GOAL-SETTING INVENTORY Rushall, B. S. (1992). Sport psychology consultation system (SPCS). 4225 Orchard Drive, Spring Valley, CA 91977.
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