Bukowski, W. M., Jr., & Moore, D. (1980). Winners' and losers' attributions for success and failure in a series of athletic events. Journal of Sport Psychology, 2, 195-210.

In boys, success was attributed to internal factors (events over which the athlete has control) while failure was attributed to external events. This reflected the pre-contest orientation of the athletes in terms of the source of their goal-setting. It suggests that when formulating contest goals, the factors which should be emphasized should be internal.

Implication. Contest goals and plans should focus on events over which the athlete has control. This will yield a success-oriented preparation.

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