Poag-DuCharme, K. A., & Brawley, L. R. (1994). Perceptions of the behavioral influence of goals: A mediational relationship to exercise. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 6, 32-50.

As individuals learn to use goals, relationships between goal-related variables and behavior change. This feature has not been emphasized by goal theorists and researchers. The modified relationships need to reflect salient aspects of the exercise setting for the participants examined.

In this investigation, it was observed that exercisers reported goals and action plans that revealed their knowledge about some of the specific behavior strategies and exercise behaviors required to attain their goals. In future studies, employing a specific efficacy measure of a participant's perceived ability to complete an exercise-related behavior with which they are familiar, may aid in predicting exercise frequency. Perceptions of goal clarity, commitment, and influence increased as adherers experienced the program.

Exercisers became quite knowledgeable about what they should do, but the frequency and nature of their participation often is not in concert with that knowledge.

Implication. When using goals, it is what the individuals do, not say, that is important. Behavioral compliance should be the main assessment criterion when assessing the effectiveness of goal-instruction and goal-setting programs.

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