Duda, J. L. (1989). Goal perspectives, participation, and persistence in sports. International Journal of Sports Psychology, 20(1), 42-56.

  1. Those involved in organized sports were higher in task mastery than social comparison goals.
  2. Those in recreational sports, drop-outs, and never involved, were higher in social comparison (outcomes) than mastery goals.
  3. Organized sport only, drop outs, and never involveds, showed:

Implication. Task-mastery goals lead to more success. This relates to what athletes should be expected to include in the goals of their sporting experience. It does mesh accurately with the universal interest of athletes in improving the skill elements of their sport.

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