Harackiewicz, J. M., Sansone, C., & Manderlink, G. (1985). Competence, achievement orientation, and intrinsic motivation: a process analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48(2), 493-508.

When performance and performance evaluation focuses on a particular goal, rather than relative standings, more thought is put into the task.

Implication. Tasks will be completed better if concentration is focused on what is to be done to achieve a specific behavioral outcome rather than on something that is not so directed toward behavior.

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