Erez, M. (1977). Feedback: A necessary condition for the goal setting-performance relationship. Journal of Applied Psychology, 62, 624-627.

It was found that the effects of receiving performance feedback after task performance were significantly greater than when no feedback was experienced. Also, feedback increased the relationship between performance and self-set goals.

  1. Performance feedback is necessary for goals to affect performance.
  2. Feedback alone does not affect performance, nor do goals alone. It is when the two are combined that performance changes.

Implication. Practice trials (activities) should yield feedback in terms of performance information that is measurable and observable. Practice trials without feedback are wasted trials. Rules for using performance information and adjusting consequent self-set goals should be established by athletes, probably after instruction by the coach.

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