KNOWLEDGE OF RESULTS AND GOAL-SETTING
Cummings, L. L., Schwab, D., & Rosen, M. (1971). Performance and knowledge of results as determinants of goal setting. Journal of Applied Psychology, 55, 526-530.
Addition problems were performed for 20 minutes. The following relationships between knowledge of results (KR) and goal-setting were revealed.
Implication. Persons do not normally aim for goals that their previous performance indicates would be unrealistic or non-challenging. Coaches have to be honest and realistic in performance analysis and when suggesting goals. Attempting to "motivate" by setting "impossible" goals (as perceived by the athlete), is unlikely to improve performance and more likely will cause performance to worsen.
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