Volume 13(3): November, 2007

SPECIFICITY OF TRAINING 5

This third issue of Volume 13 of Coaching Science Abstracts reviews articles concerned with the specificity of training, a principle that is often overlooked in the pursuit of training variety, and the ill-advised and wasteful concept of cross-training. Four previous issues, namely Volume 1(2), Volume 4(2), Volume 7(3), and Volume 10(3) also dealt with this topic. The information from those sources, as well as that contained in this issue, will yield an extensive knowledge base of recent research in the specificity of sports conditioning.

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    1. GENERAL

  1. CHANGE THE WEIGHT, CHANGE THE SKILL

    Hadeed, J. (June 1, 2001). Sport specific training: The neuromuscular connection. Articles on the Elite thlete Training Systems' web site [http://www.eliteathletetraining.com/Articles/Article_4.aspx].

  2. ELASTIC RECOIL ACTIONS ARE SENSITIVE TO PRELOAD CONDITIONS

    Ishikawa, M., Niemela, E., & Komi, P. V. (2005). Fascicle and tendinous tissue behavior in stretch-shortening cycle exercise performed with varying prestretch intensities. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37(5), Supplement abstract 1434.

  3. CYCLING AT DIFFERENT INTENSITIES USES DIFFERENT NEUROMUSCULAR MOVEMENT PATTERNS

    Horscroft, R. D., Davidson, C. J., McDaniel, J., Hunter, E. L., Grisham, J. D., McNeil, J. M., Gidley, L. D., Carroll, C., Thompson, F. T., & Martin, J. C. (2005). Joint power distribution differs during maximal and submaximal cycling. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37(5), Supplement abstract 625.

  4. NEUROMUSCULAR FUNCTIONING IS SPECIFIC TO PEDALING CADENCE IN CYCLISTS

    McDaniel, J., Gidley, L. D., Tomas, A., Hunter, E. L., Grisham, J. D., McNeil, J. M., Carroll, C., Thompson, F. T., Davidson, C. J., & Horscroft, R. D. (2005). Joint power distribution at 60, 90, and 120 rpm during seated maximal cycling. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37(5), Supplement abstract 626.

  5. SPECIFICITY OF THE STRENGTH TRAINING RESPONSE

    McArdle, W. D., Katch, F. I., & Katch, V. L. (2004). Exercise physiology (5th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  6. PLYOMETRIC EXERCISES ARE SPORT SPECIFIC

    McArdle, W. D., Katch, F. I., & Katch, V. L. (2004). Exercise physiology (5th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  7. HIGH-INTENSITY INTERMITTENT TRAINING AFFECTS ARE SPECIFIC

    Mohr, M., Krustrup, P., Nielsen, J. J., Mybo, L., Rasmussen, K., Juel, C., & Bangsbo, J. (2005). Effect of two different training regimes on muscle adaptations and intermittent exercise performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37(5), Supplement abstract 1518.

  8. MUSCLES LOAD AND REACT DIFFERENTLY IN THE SAME EXERCISE

    Kinugasa, R., Kawakami, Y., & Fukunaga, T. (2006). Load-specific distribution of muscle activity in human triceps surae muscles. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 2127.

  9. SPECIFIC TRAINING IS NEEDED TO IMPROVE PERFORMANCE

    Rudroff, T., Bojsen-Moller, J., Poston, B., & Enoka, R. M. (2006). Transient recruitment of motor units is altered in weightlifters during sustained submaximal contractions. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 2406.

  10. CYCLING BODY POSITION AFFECTS TESTING RESULTS

    Chou, C.-C., Pan, H.-C., & Lin, J.-C. (2006). The effects of different upper body positions on physiological response during maximal and submaximal cycling. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 2648.

  11. ANAEROBIC TRAINING STRONGLY STIMULATES LACTATE THRESHOLDS BUT ALSO MARGINALLY INCREASES AEROBIC CAPACITY

    Pritchett, R. C., Green, M., & Kerr, K. (2007). Lactate response in anaerobic and aerobic athletes and sedentary individuals. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number, 1605.

  12. RESISTANCE TRAINING EFFECTS ARE SPECIFIC, GENDER DIFFERENTIATED, AND UNLIKELY TO TRANSFER TO SPORTING ACTIVITIES

    Kerksick, C., Mayhew, J., Smith, A., Johnson, B., Hart, C., & Ward, T. (2007). General and specific strength development following resistance training in college men and women. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans,Presentation Number, 1778.

    2. TRANSFER FAILURES

  13. STRENGTH TRAINING DOES NOT IMPROVE CYCLING PERFORMANCE

    Jackson, N., Hickey, M., Reiser II, R., Hutcheson, K., & Melby, C. (2004). Maximum strength versus strength endurance resistance training: Effects on the performance of cyclists. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 396.

  14. TRANSFER OF TRAINING RESULTS FROM SPECIFIC PROGRAMS

    Hernández, J., & Salazar-Rojas, W. (2004). The effect of three lower-body training programs: A verification of the specificity principle. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 2395.

  15. ANY STRENGTH TRAINING IMPROVES THE TRAINING ACTIVITIES

    Nelson, J., & Termizan, D. (2006). The effect of complex training in the strength phase: College football players. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1613.

  16. HEAVY RESISTANCE TRAINING DOES NOT ALTER MODERATE RESISTANCE EXERCISE ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE

    Brechue, W. F., Mayhew, J. L., & Koch, A. J. (2006). Strength gains may alter absolute and relative muscle endurance in college football players. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1775.

  17. SLOW STRENGTH TRAINING IMPROVES SLOW STRENGTH MOVEMENTS

    Blazevich, A. J., Cannavan, D., Coleman, D. R., Wytch, P., & Home, S. (2006). Neuromuscular and isometric force-velocity adaptations to concentric and eccentric strength training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1794.

  18. NO RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TREADMILL AND SWIMMING TEST RESULTS

    Nagle, E. F., Robertson, R. J., Chomentowski, P. J., & McLaughlin, K. J. (2006). Absence of relation between 12-Minute and 500-yard swim and treadmill determined maximal aerobic power. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5),Supplement abstract 2674.

  19. TRAINING EMPHASIS ON KICKING DOES NOT IMPROVE FREE SWIMMING PERFORMANCE

    Konstantaki, M., & Winter, E. M. (2007). The effectiveness of a leg-kicking training program on performance and physiological measure of competitive swimmers. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 2, 37-48.

  20. RUNNING ECONOMY IS NOT RELATED TO MECHANICAL POWER

    Heise, G. D., Rapacki, L., Dunlavy, J., White, G., Dounglomehunt, P., Binks, L., Poston, B., & Shinohara, M. (2006). Relation between running economy and continuous jumping mechanical power measures. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 863.

  21. 1 RM CHANGES NOT RELATED TO POWER VARIABLES

    Nacliero, F., Forte, D., Colado, J. C., Benavent, J., & Chulvi, I. (2007). Analysis of the force and power produced in the squat over 52 weeks training. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number, 1776.

  22. FOOTBALL PASSING IS TOO DISSIMILAR TO PITCHING TO BE OF ANY VALUE; BUT IT COULD BE HARMFUL

    Fleisig, G. S., Excamilla, R. F., Andrews, J. R., Matsuo, T., Satterwhite, Y., Barrentine, S. W. (1996). Kinematic and kinetic comparison between baseball pitching and football passing. Journal of Applied Biomechanics 12(2), 207-224.

    3. TRANSFER SUCCESSES

  23. TRAINING WITH EYES CLOSED IMPROVES BALANCE

    Amundsen, A., Kuffel, E., & Seiler, S. (2006). Postural balance training: effects of training mode and training frequency. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1084.

    4. APPLICATIONS

  24. ACTIVITY-SPECIFIC TESTS CAN BE USED TO ESTIMATE ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD

    Luebbers, P. E., Stanbrough, M. E., Ermler, K., Butler, M. S., & Harris, D. F. (2004). An examination of the relationship among three indirect tests of anaerobic threshold. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 295.

  25. WARM-UPS SHOULD MATCH INTENDED PERFORMANCE INTENSITY

    Burnley, M., Doust, J. H., & Jones, A. M. (2005). Effects of prior warm-up regime on severe intensity cycling performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37(5), Supplement abstract 437.

  26. TWO FORMS OF CYCLING ARE ENTIRELY DIFFERENT

    Reiser, R. F., & McMurtre, A. P. (2005). Lower extremity muscle activation differences between upright and recumbent cycling. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37(5), Supplement abstract 2053.

  27. DURATION OF TRAINING INFLUENCES HEART RATE RESPONSE TO EXERCISE

    Franklin, R. M., Figueroa, A., Baynard, T., Carhart, R., & Kanaley, J. A. (2006). Effects of single- vs. multiple-bout moderate exercise training on heart rate during submaximal exercise in women. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1929.

  28. ANAEROBIC TRAINING IS IMPORTANT FOR REDUCING EXERCISE STRESS AND INJURY

    Bloomer, R. J., Falvo, M. J., Fry, A. C., Schilling, B. K., Smith, W. A., & Moore, C. A. 2006). Anaerobic exercise does not result in oxidative stress or skeletal muscle injury in trained men. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5),Supplement abstract 2185.

  29. GOLF-SPECIFIC WARM-UP REDUCES INJURIES IN GOLFERS

    Fradkin, A. Cameron, P., Gabbe, B., & Forbes, A. (2006). Does warming-up reduce the risk of injury to golfers? A cluster randomised controlled trial. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 2029.

  30. DOWNHILL RUNNING ALTERS RUNNING ECONOMY

    Braun, W. A., Woram, J., & Griffith, I. (2007). The acute effects of a downhill running bout on running economy. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number, 1420.

  31. BASEBALL PERFORMANCE IS NOT DETERMINED BY PHYSICAL/PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTORS

    Basile, R., Otto, R. M., & Sygand, J. W. (2007). The relationship between physical and physiological performance measures and baseball performance measures. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number, 1448.

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