Volume 10(3): November, 2004

SPECIFICITY OF TRAINING 4

This third issue of Volume 10 of Coaching Science Abstracts reviews articles concerned with the specificity of training, a principle that is often overlooked in the pursuit of training variety, and the ill-advised and wasteful concept of cross-training. Three previous issues, namely Volume 1(2), Volume 4(2), and Volume 7(3)also dealt with this topic. The information from those sources, as well as that contained in this issue, will yield an extensive knowledge base of recent research in the specificity of sports conditioning.

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    1. GENERAL

  1. SPORT-SPECIFIC PHYSIOLOGICAL TESTING IS UNRELATED TO LABORATORY TESTING

    Smekal, G., Pokan, R., von Duvillard, S. P., Baron, R., Tschan, H., & Bachl, N. (2000). Comparison of laboratory and "on-court" endurance testing in tennis. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 21, 242-249.

  2. NO ERGOMETER SPECIFICITY IN FEMALE MASTERS ATHLETES

    Wiener, S. P., Garger, C. E., & Manfredi, T. G. (1995). A comparison of exercise performance on bicycle and rowing ergometers in female master recreational rowers. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 35, 176-180.

  3. SWIMMING ECONOMY IS BEST AT VELOCITIES THAT REFLECT THE MAJORITY OF SWIMMING TRAINING EXPERIENCES

    Reer, R., Ramcke, C., Rudolph, K., & Braumann, K. M. (2002). Differences in swim economy and metabolic-cardiocirculatory parameters between endurance and sprint swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1339.

  4. TRAINED PHYSIOLOGICAL ADAPTATIONS ARE ONLY SPECIFIC FOR TRAINING EXERCISES

    Claytor, R. P (May, 1986). Selected cardiovascular sympathoadrenal and metabolic responses to one-leg exercise training. Dissertation Abstracts International-A, 46, 3283.

  5. TRANSFER OF TRAINING EFFECTS ARE LIMITED AT BEST

    Rushall notes, 2003.

    2. TRANSFER FAILURES

  6. TREADMILL INTERVAL TRAINING HAS LIMITED USES FOR RUNNING TRAINING

    Coombes, J. S., Smith, T. P., Dilger, J., Penney, G., Davoren, B., & Geraghty, D. P. (2001). Optimising high intensity treadmill training using vVO2max and Tmax. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(5), Supplement abstract 748.

  7. RESISTANCE TRAINING HAS SPECIFIC EFFECTS AND NO EFFECT ON OTHER ACTIVITIES

    Knight, C. A., & Kamen, G. (2001). Motor unit discharge behavior during 10% MVC isometric contractions following resistance exercise training in young and older adults. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(5), Supplement abstract 1214.

  8. TRADITIONAL WEIGHT TRAINING OF NO BENEFIT TO FOOTBALL LINEMEN

    Harney, R. G., Purcell, M., Martinez-Arizala, G., Reed, E., & Serfass, R. (2001). Relationship between anthropometric measurements, traditional modes of testing and training, and blocking performance in collegiate football linemen. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(5), Supplement abstract 1387.

  9. MULTI-ACTIVITY TRAINING DOES NOT IMPROVE PERFORMANCE

    Hue, O., Valluet, A., Blonc, S., & Hertogh, C. (2002). Effects of multicycle-run training on triathlete performance. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 73, 289-295.

  10. SQUAT STRENGTH NOT THAT IMPORTANT FOR VERTICAL JUMPING

    Hasson, C. J., Doan, B. K., Robertson, K. M., Dugan, E. L., Shim, J., Newton, R. U., & Kraemer, W. J. (2002). Relationship of 1 RM squat and vertical jump performance in NCAA male volleyball players. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 189.

  11. SPECIFICITY OF TRAINING EFFECTS IN SWIMMING

    Rinehardt, K F., Axtell, R. S., Kleine, S., Upson, D., Woznica, D., Quill, T., Weitzner, J. M., Ordway, P., Kovi, D. L., & Carabetta, J. L. (2002). Response in performance, metabolic indices, and perception during a season of collegiate competitive swim training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1099.

  12. TREADMILL RUNNING TESTS ARE NOT SENSITIVE TO SKI-TRAINING ADAPTATIONS

    Mygind, E., Larsson, B., & Klausen, T. (1991). Evaluation of a specific test in cross-country skiing. Journal of Sports Sciences, 9, 249-257.

  13. LABORATORY TESTS ONLY PARTLY REPLICATE A REAL ACTIVITY

    Linaker, K. L., Martin, D. T., Lawton, E., Rattray, B., Kushanik, N. W., & Roberts, A. D. (2003). Physiological responses of well-trained cyclists to field and laboratory mountain bike race simulations. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 188.

  14. STRENGTH TRAINING ONLY IMPROVES STRENGTH TRAINING ACTIVITIES IN SWIMMERS

    Breed, R. V., Young, W. B., & McElroy, G. K. (September, 2000). The effect of a resistance-training program on the grab, swing, and track starts in swimming. 2000 Pre-Olympic Congress in Sports Medicine and Physical Education: International Congress on Sport Science. Brisbane, Australia. [On line at http://www.ausport.gov.au/fulltext/2000/preoly/abs325b.htm].

  15. ISOMETRIC TRAINING IMPROVES ACTIVATION AND IS LIMB-SPECIFIC

    Smith, D. B., Housh, T. J., Johnson, G. O., Evetovich, T. K.,Ebersole, K. T., Rana, S. R., & Bull, A. J. (2003). Mechanomyographic, electromyographic, and peak torque responses to isometric strength training of the vastus lateralis. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 803.

  16. MARATHON PERFORMANCE NOT IMPROVED BY PRE-COMPETITION 10-KM-SPECIFIC TRAINING

    Billat, V., Demarle, A., Paiiva, M., & Koralsztein, J. P. (2002). Effect of training on the physiological factors of performance in elite marathon runners (males and females). International Journal of Sports Medicine, 23, 336-341.

  17. LABORATORY MEASURES ARE NOT VERY SENSITIVE TO REAL PERFORMANCE CHANGES

    Garner, A. S., Martin, D. T., Gulbin, J., Doney, G. E., Jenkins, D. G., & Hahn, A. G. (2003). Laboratory and velodrome sprint cycling power in female cyclists following 6 weeks of training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1872.

    3. TRANSFER SUCCESSES

  18. EXPLOSIVE AUXILIARY TRAINING IMPROVES ENDURANCE RUNNING ECONOMY

    Paavolainen, L., Hakkinen, K., Hamalainen, I., Nummela, A., & Rusko, H. (1999). Explosive-strength training improves 5-km running time by improving running economy and muscle power. Journal of Applied Physiology, 86, 1527-1533.

  19. LOADED PRACTICE IMPROVES THE FIRST TRIAL OF UNLOADED WORK IN A NOVEL TASK

    Kurrant, A. B., & Kerner, M. S. (2002). Loaded practice affects unloaded movement time but not reaction time. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 226.

  20. TRAINING ADAPTATION OCCURS AT A VARIETY OF RUNNING VELOCITIES

    Towse, T. F., Percy, C., Hanby, C., & Freedson, P. S. (2002). Specificity of training and the metabolic cost of transport. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 976.

  21. HIP STRENGTH TRAINING IMPROVES SPRINT AND AGILITY PERFORMANCES

    Deane, R. S., Chow, J. W., Tillman, M. D., & Fournier, K. A. (2003). Hip flexor strength training can improve sprint and shuttle run performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 2250.

    4. APPLICATIONS

  22. TRAINING ACTIVITIES NEED TO BE HIGHLY RELATED TO COMPETITION ACTIVITIES TO MOTIVATE ATHLETES

    Young, B. W., & Salmela, J. H. (2002). Perceptions of training and deliberate practice of middle distance runners. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 33, 167-181.

  23. ICE HOCKEY GAMES STRESS THE HEART MORE THAN PRACTICES

    Rundell, K. W., Judelson, D. A., & Speiring, B. A. (2002). An evaluation of cardiovascular demands and practice specificity in women's ice hockey. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 879.

  24. TRIATHLON RUNNING AND CYCLING ARE RELATED BUT SWIMMING IS SPECIFIC

    Millet, G. P., Candau, R. B., Barbier, B., Busson, T., Rouillon, J. D., & Chatard, J. C. (2002). Modeling of transfers of training effects on performance in elite triathletes. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 25, 63.

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