Volume 4(2): October, 1998
SPECIFICITY OF TRAINING 2
This second issue of Volume 4 of Coaching Science Abstracts reviews articles concerned with the benefits of specific training when compared to "general" or "cross-training." Interpretations are made with reference to athletes who train seriously. The implications for trained athletes are likely to be different to those for non-athletes who start a program of fitness development. Some items regarding the requirement for specific testing to obtain useful results for a particular activity are also included.
The content of this issue supplements that contained in Volume1(2) that contain information on the same topic.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CROSS-TRAINING NOT AS GOOD AS SPECIFIC TRAINING Foster, C., Hector, L. L., Welsh, R., Schrager, M., Green, M. A., & Snyder, A. C. (1995). Effects of specific versus cross-training on running performance. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 70, 367-372.
SOME SUPPORT FOR CROSS-TRAINING Bushman, B. A., Flynn, M. G., Andres, F. F., Lambert, C. P., Taylor, M. S., & Braun, W. A. (1997). Effect of 4 wk of deep water run training on running performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29, 694-699.
CYCLING CROSS-TRAINING IS DETRIMENTAL TO RUNNING ECONOMY Pizza, G. X., Flynn, M. G., Starling, R. D., Brolinson, P. G., Sigg, J., Kubitz, E. R., & Davenport, R. L. (1995). Run training vs cross training: Influence of increased training on running economy, foot impact shock, and run performance. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 16, 180-184.
OFF-SEASON AEROBIC TRAINING HAS ONLY SPECIFIC AEROBIC EFFECTS Isaka, T., & Takahashi, K. (1997). Effects of off- and pre-season training on aerobic and anaerobic power of kayak paddlers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29(5), Supplement abstract 1242.
DEEP WATER AND TREADMILL RUNNING; SIMILAR IN SOME MEASURES AND DIFFERENT IN OTHERS DeMaere, J., Ruby, B. C., & Swan, J. (1997). Effects of deep water and treadmill running on oxygen uptake and energy expenditure in seasonally trained cross country runners. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29(5), Supplement abstract 1264.
SPURIOUS BENEFITS OF AUXILIARY TRAINING IN ELITE SKIERS Rusko, H. K., Paavolainen, L. M., Vahasoyrinki, P., & Vaananen, I. (1997). Effect of increased training quality on response to ski training on snow in elite cross-country skiers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29(5), Supplement abstract 1266.
LEG-STRENGTH TRAINING DOES NOT IMPROVE ENDURANCE CYCLING Bishop, D., Jenkins, D. J., Mackinnon, L. T., Carey, M. F., & McEniery, M. (1977). The influence of resistance training on endurance performance in female endurance cyclists. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29(5), Supplement abstract 1502.
SINGLE MEASURES OF SPECIFIC TRAINING NOT SO STRONG IN DISTANCE RUNNERS Hewson, D. J., & Hopkins, W. G. (1996). Specificity of training and its relation to the performance of distance runners. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 17, 199-204.
FURTHER PROBLEMS WITH MEASURING EXCESS POST-EXERCISE OXYGEN CONSUMPTION O'Malley, W. L., Quinn, T. J., Kertzer, R. & Vroman, N. B. (1977). Effects of exercise modality on excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) in female runners. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29(5), Supplement abstract 1109.
RATINGS OF PERCEIVED EXERTION ARE SPECIFIC TO EACH TYPE OF EXERCISE Peoples, J. A., Robertson, R. J., Thompson, P. D., Millich, N. B., Goss, F. L., & Moyna, N. M. (1997). Cross-modal comparison of percent peak oxygen uptake at fixed levels of perceived exertion. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29(5), Supplement abstract 1223.
POOL SWIMMING TESTS ARE BETTER THAN FLUME SWIMMING TESTS Wakayoshi, K., Yoshida, T., Udo, M., Kasai, T., Moritani, T., Mutoh, T., & Miyashita, M. (1992). A simple method for determining critical speed as swimming fatigue threshold in competitive swimming. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 13, 367-371.
SPECIFICITY OF AEROBIC TRAINING Ray, C. A., Cureton, K. J., & Ouzts, H. G. (1990). Postural specificity of cardiovascular adaptations to exercise training. Journal of Applied Physiology, 69, 2202-2208.
HOW YOU TRAIN GOVERNS TRAINING RESPONSES: AN EXAMPLE OF A MISLEADING STUDY Mannix, E. T., Healy, A., & Farber, M. O. (1996). Aerobic power and supramaximal endurance of competitive figure skaters. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 36, 161-168.
WHATEVER HAPPENS AT LOW EFFORTS HAS NO RELATIONSHIP TO WHAT HAPPENS AT HIGH EFFORTS Brisswalter, J., Legros, P., & Durand, M. (1996). Running economy, preferred step length correlated to body dimensions in elite middle distance runners. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 36, 7-15.
UNTRAINED FEMALES RESPOND SIMILARLY TO DIFFERENT ACTIVITIES Ruby, B., Robergs, R., Leadbetter, G., Mermier, C., Chick, T., & Stark, D. (1996). Cross-training between cycling and running in untrained females. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 36, 246-254.
STRENGTH AND PHYSIQUE RELATED TO BOYS' PERFORMANCES ONLY IN A MINOR WAY Ball, T. E., Massey, B. H., Misner, J. E., McKeown, B. C., & Lohman, T. G. (1992). The relative contribution of strength and physique to running and jumping performance of boys 7-11. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 31, 364-371.
INTERMITTENT TRAINING IS MORE DEMANDING ON OXYGEN TRANSPORT THAN CONTINUOUS TRAINING Almuzaini, K. S., Potteiger, J. A., & Green, S. B. (1977). A comparison of continuous and split exercise sessions on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption and resting metabolic rate. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29(5), Supplement abstract 1112.
EPOC IS SPECIFIC TO THE EXERCISE TASK Dooly, C. R., Reed, K. C., & Dotson, C. O. (1997). Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption at different intensities with equal energy expenditure. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29(5), Supplement abstract 1113.
TO IMPROVE SPEED MOVE FAST AND FORGET STRENGTH TRAINING Kluckhuhn, K. L., Signorile, J. F., Miller, P. C., Webber, B. C., & Garcia, M. (1997). An analysis of high-speed isokinetics and pitching. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29(5), Supplement abstract 1273.
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