Volume 6(4): February, 2001
MENTAL FACTORS IN SPORTS
This fourth issue of Volume 6 of Coaching Science Abstracts reviews articles concerned with several mental factors in sports. Previously, the topics included were largely offered as specific issues. Those issues were:
- Learning in Sports [Nature of skill learning, Content of instruction, Instructional styles, Forward shaping, Backward shaping, Teaching general behavior control]
- Psychological Activity in Sport [Cognitive activity, Arousal, Anxiety, Stress, Measuring psychological activity]
- Psychological Dynamics of Performance [Team building, Strategies, Psyching-up, Psychological skills training, Competition thinking]
The contents of this issue should be married with the specific sections of previous Coaching Science Abstracts' issues to extend understanding of the factors.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
GENDER-DIFFERENT RESPONSES UNDER DIFFERENT FORMS OF ATTENTIONAL FOCUS Wrisberg, C. A., Franks, B. D., Birdwell, M. W., & High, D. M. (1988). Physiological and psychological responses to exercise with an induced attentional focus. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 66, 603-616.
GENDERS DIFFER IN ATTENTIONAL ABILITIES IN SPORTS Pierce, D., & Edwards, W. W. (1999). The attentional style of intercollegiate athletes based on gender and type of sport. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31(5), Supplement abstract 315.
AROUSAL, ANXIETY, AND STRESS
THOUGHTS, AROUSAL, AND PERFORMANCE HAS VERY LITTLE TO DO WITH ANXIETY Hardy, L. (1997). The Coleman Roberts Griffith Address: Three myths about applied consultancy work. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 9, 277-294.
APPRAISALS AND COPING A BETTER WAY OF INTERPRETING REACTIONS TO STRESSFUL SITUATIONS Burton, D., & Naylor, S. (1997). Is anxiety really facilitative? Reaction to the myth that cognitive anxiety always impairs sport performance. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 9, 295-302.
ANXIETY IS ASSOCIATED WITH SLOWER SWIMMING Burton, D. (1988). Do anxious swimmers swim slower? Reexamining the elusive anxiety-performance relationship. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 10, 45-61.
PRE-TASK INTERPRETATIONS OF ANXIETY AND AROUSAL AFFECT CONFIDENCE Savitsky, K., Medvec, V. H., Charlton, A. E., & Glovich, T. (1998). "What, me worry?": Arousal, misattribution, and the effect of temporal distance on confidence. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, 529-536.
COMPETITIVE ANXIETY IS ASSOCIATED WITH MENTAL ACTIVITIES Hall, H. K., Kerr, A. W., & Matthews, J. (1998). Precompetitive anxiety in sport: The contribution of achievement goals and perfectionism. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 20, 194-217.
HIGH INCENTIVE AND CONFIDENCE WORK AGAINST EACH OTHER'S AFFECT ON AROUSAL Yancey, G. B., Humphrey, E., & Neal, K. (1992). How perceived incentive, task confidence, and arousal influence performance. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 74, 279-285.
ANXIETY COULD MEDIATE PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENTS DESPITE AN ATHLETE BEING CONFIDENT Thompson, R. F., & Perlini, A. H. (1998). Feedback and self-efficacy, arousal, and performance of introverts and extraverts. Psychological Reports, 82, 707-716.
MEASUREMENT OF MENTAL SKILLS TRAINING EFFECTS Grove, J. R., Norton, P. J., Van Raalte, J. L., & Brewer, B. W. (1999). Stages of change as an outcome measure in the evaluation of mental skills training programs. The Sport Psychologist, 13, 107-116.
FEMALE SWIMMERS USE FEW MENTAL SKILLS Huddleston, S., & Thiese, K. (1999). The use of psychological skills by female collegiate swimmers. Journal of Sport Behavior, 22, 602-610.
MENTAL SKILLS FACILITATE BETTER COMPETING Hanton, S., & Jones, G. (1999). The acquisition and development of cognitive skills and strategies: I. Making the butterflies fly in formation. The Sport Psychologist, 13, 1-21.
LEARNING AND PRACTICE SKILLS
NEUROMUSCULAR FUNCTIONING IS AFFECTED BY CARBOHYDRATE AVAILABILITY Schiestl, G., Gastman, U., Steinacker, J. M., & Lehmann, M. (1997). Influence of saccharose supplementation on neuromuscular excitability (NME) during prolonged heavy exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29(5), Supplement abstract 112.
LEARNING IS BEST ACCOMPLISHED IN A NON-FATIGUED STATE Barnett, M. L., Ross, D., Schmidt, A., & Todd, B. (1973). Motor skill learning and the specificity of training principle. Research Quarterly, 44, 440-447.
AGE OF LEARNING TO SWIM IS MOST IMPORTANT FACTOR Mael, F. A. (1995). Staying afloat: Within-group swimming proficiency for whites and blacks. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80, 479-480.
METAPHORS CHANGE THE LEARNING SETTING TO PRODUCE BETTER SKILL ACQUISITION Efran, J. S., Lesser, G. S., & Spiller, M. J. (1994). Enhancing tennis coaching with youths using a metaphor method. The Sport Psychologist, 8, 349-359.
LEARNING IMPROVES WHEN ATTENTION IS FOCUSED Singer, R. N., Lidor, R., & Cauraugh, J. H. (1993). To be aware or not aware? What to think about while learning and performing a motor skill. The Sport Psychologist, 7, 19-30.
INCREASE SPEED FIRST AND THEN WORK ON ACCURACY Gabriel, D. A., & Boucher, J. P (2000) Practicing a maximal performance task: A cooperative strategy for muscle activity. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 71, 217-228.
SUCCESS AND FAILURE ATTRIBUTIONS IN DIFFERENT SPORTS Gleckner, C. E., Sato, G., & Callaghan, J. (1997). No attributional differences between collegiate swimmers/runners and gymnasts/divers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29(5), Supplement abstract 696.
ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION RELATED TO PERFORMANCE AND INJURY Warren, B., Newton, M., Niedfeldt, C., & Savage, H. (1997). Relationship of anatomical and achievement motivation goals to injury conditions in collegiate track athletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29(5), Supplement abstract 697.
ATTITUDE AND MOOD STATES
POMS CONFIRMS SOME OVERTRAINED SWIMMERS Raglin, J. S., & Morgan, W. P. (1994). Development of a scale for use in monitoring training-induced distress in athletes. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 15, 84-88.
HARD TRAINING PRODUCES A GLOOMY MOOD Berger, B. G., Grove, J. R., Prapavessis, H., & Butki, B. D. (1997). Relationship of swimming distance, expectancy, and performance to mood states of competitive athletes. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 84, 1199-1210.
NO CIRCADIAN RHYTHM FOR MOOD BEFORE EXERCISE Koltyn, K. F., Lynch, N. A., & Hill, D. W. (1998). Psychological responses to brief exhaustive cycling exercise in the morning and evening. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 29, 145-156.
PESSIMISM AND ANXIETY DO NOT DIFFERENTIATE PERFORMANCES Wilson, G., & Raglin, J. (1998). Optimism-pessimism, performance, and precompetition anxiety in collegiate track and field athletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30(5), Supplement abstract 500.
VOLLEYBALL TRAINING NOT ASSOCIATED WITH MOOD CHANGES IN FEMALES Moger, L. J., & Raglin, J. S. (1998). Mood state and vertical jump during a season of competition in collegiate volleyball players. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30(5), Supplement abstract 501.
MOOD STATE INSENSITIVE TO TRAINING AND LIVING ALTITUDES Coyle, M. A., Raglin, J. S., & Stager, J. M. (1998). Mood state of runners participating in an elite developmental training camp. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30(5), Supplement abstract 694.
MOOD STATES ARE STATES NOT TRAITS Brandao, M. R., Figueira, A. J., Andrade, D., Buso, M. C., & Fechio, J. J. (1998). The tracking of mood states. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30(5), Supplement abstract 696.
POMS MIGHT BE RELATED TO TEAM SUCCESS Hoffman, J. R., Bar-Eli, M., & Tenenbaum, G., (1999). An examination of mood changes and performance in a professional basketball team. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 39, 74-79.
STEROIDS AFFECT A WIDE RANGE OF MOOD FACTORS Parrott, A. C., Choi, P. Y., & Davies, M. (1994). Anabolic steroid use by amateur athletes: effects upon psychological mood states. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 34, 292-298.
RESISTANCE TRAINING IMPROVES MOOD Bartholomew, J. B. (1999). The effect of resistance exercise on manipulated preexercise mood states for male exercisers. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 21, 39-51.
SELF-REPORTS OF EXERCISE EFFECTS ARE UNRELIABLE Pothakos, K., & Kubitz, K. A. (1998). Effects of aerobic exercise and fitness on brain and self-reported activation. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30(5), Supplement abstract 663.
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