Koltyn, K. F., Lynch, N. A., & Hill, D. W. (1998). Psychological responses to brief exhaustive cycling exercise in the morning and evening. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 29, 145-156.

Healthy males (N = 16) performed exercises in the morning (6:30-9:30 AM) and evening (5:00-8:00 PM). One trial consisted of incremental exercise the other constant exercise to exhaustion, both on a cycle ergometer. Measures were taken pre- and post-trials. Psychological responses were assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Profile of Mood States (POMS).

The POMS measure of vigor was significantly higher in the PM and for the constant activity. Fatigue also increased following both constant activity trials. There were no significant changes in state anxiety, tension, depression, anger, confusion or the composite mood measure following either form of exercise at either time.

It was concluded that anxiety and mood responses to brief exhaustive cycling were similar no matter the time of day of performance.

Implication. Mood before exercise is not affected by the time of day of that exercise.

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