Grove, J. R., Norton, P. J., Van Raalte, J. L., & Brewer, B. W. (1999). Stages of change as an outcome measure in the evaluation of mental skills training programs. The Sport Psychologist, 13, 107-116.

The evaluation of the effectiveness of mental skills training programs is an important feature of clinical practice and justification. The "Transtheoretical Model" offers an appropriate framework for theory-based evaluation of mental skills training. Stages of change are listed below and have been incorporated into the Stages of Change Questionnaire.

Male youth baseball players (N = 37) participated in a weekly group mental skills program that focused on six general mental skills: control of nerves and tension, concentration, emotional control, use of imagery, self-confidence, and planning, analysis, and goal setting.

Treatment group Ss attended over 90% of the group sessions and averaged 23 of a possible maximum of 30 diary entries during the six-week intervention program. Use of the mental skills presented in the program increased significantly in the intervention group but changed insignificantly in the control group. A significant difference between the groups still existed at a three-month follow-up. The proportion of treatment group participants in the action or maintenance stage was 40% pretest, 90% posttest, and 75% at follow-up. For the control group, the percentages for the same periods were 47%, 24%, and 48%.

Implication. The Stages of Change Questionnaire is an effective tool for evaluating the success of mental skills training programs.

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