Gleckner, C. E., Sato, G., & Callaghan, J. (1997). No attributional differences between collegiate swimmers/runners and gymnasts/divers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29(5), Supplement abstract 696.

Attributions for success and failure were assessed in two groups of collegiate athletes: runners and swimmers (N = 48) whose performance outcome is objectively timed, and gymnasts/divers whose performance outcome is subjectively rated. Ss completed the Revised Causal Dimension Scale, which measured locus of causality, controllability, and stability towards wins and losses (outcomes), and the Sport Attribution Style Survey, which measured internality, stability, globality, controllability, and intentionality towards hypothetical positive or negative sporting events (performance).

No significant differences between the groups were revealed. Both groups indicated an internal focus for attributions toward all outcomes. Unstable attributions were made towards wins and losses (outcomes), but stable attributions toward positive and negative sporting events (performance).

Implication. Keeping in mind the restricted sample in this study, college athletes are unstable in defining reasons for wins and losses, and thus, reasons could change under different circumstances, but reasons for performances are stable and will not readily change.

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