Volume 11(6): April, 2006

DRUGS IN SPORT 3

This sixth issue of Volume 11 of Coaching Science Abstracts reviews articles concerned with drugs in sport. The entries in this issue have served as a resource for the editor when trying to understand this complex and undesirable phenomenon. It is far from being exhaustive of the topic.

Other resources that are related to this issue's topic are as follows:

TABLE OF CONTENTS

    GENERAL AND TESTING

  1. WADA'S MODE OF FUNCTIONING IS FLAWED AND IT SHOULD BE DISBANDED

    Rushall, B. S., & Jones, M. (2006). The anti-drugs-in-sport movement: Causes for concern. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 1(1), 1-18.

  2. MANY SOVIET UNION ATHLETES WERE DRUG ENHANCED

    Kalinski, M. I., Dunbar, C. C., Gavronski, W., & Szygula, Z. (May, 2002). Evidence of state-sponsored steroid research using human subjects in the former Soviet Union. Sixth IOC World Congress on Sport Sciences, abstract, p. 37.

  3. SOVIET DRUG RESEARCH IN SPORTS

    Kalinski, M. I. (2003). State-sponsored research on creatine supplements and blood doping in elite Soviet sport. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 46(3), 445-451.

  4. A SIGNIFICANT PROPORTION OF NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS ARE CONTAMINATED WITH BANNED SUBSTANCES

    Geyer, H., Parr, M. K., Mareck, U., Reinhart, U., Schrader, Y., & Schaenzer, W. (2004). Analysis of non-hormonal nutritional supplements for anabolic-androgenic steroids - Results of an international study. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 25, 124-129.

  5. SOME NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS CONTAIN BANNED SUBSTANCES

    Kamber, M., Baume, N., Saugy, M., & Rivier, L. (2001). Nutritional supplements as a source for positive doping cases? International Journal of Sports Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 11, 258-263.

  6. SUPPLEMENT LABELS ARE NOT TO BE TRUSTED

    Green, G. A., Catlin, D. H., & Starcevic, B. (2001). Analysis of over-the-counter dietary supplements. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 11, 254-259.

  7. WHY URINE TESTING IS PREFERRED TO BLOOD TESTING

    Tobin, T. (1983). Pre-race testing and its role in equine medication control. Equine Veterinary Journal, 15, 54-55.

  8. ATHLETES HAVE BETTER LONG-TERM HEALTH AND DO NOT DISPLAY THE "EVIL HEALTH RISKS" OF USING BANNED DRUGS

    Kujala, U. M., Marti, P., Kaprio, J., Hernelahti, M., Tikkanen, H.,& Sarna, S. (2003). Occurrence of chronic disease in former top-level athletes. Predominance of benefits, risks, or selection effects? Sports Medicine, 33, 553-561.

  9. SELECT-GROUP ATHLETES ARE COMPARED TO THE NORMAL POPULATION USING TESTS THAT ASSUME CERTAIN PARAMETERS

    Ayotte, C., Levesque, J. F., Cle roux, M., Lajeunesse, A., Goudreault, D., & Fakirian, A. (2001). Sport nutritional supplements: quality and doping controls. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology, 26, Supplement S120-129.

  10. TOP LEVEL SPORTS PERFORMERS HAVE DISTINCT PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

    Lucia, A., Hoyos, J., & Chicharro, J. L. (2001). Physiology of professional road cycling. Sports Medicine, 31, 325-337.

  11. THERE ARE MARKED INDIVIDUAL VARIATIONS IN RESPONSES TO HYPOXIA

    Austin, K. G., Daigle, K., Cowman, J., Bograd, B., & Haymes, E. (2004). Regulation of erythropoietin production and iron metabolism: Control by arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation vs. set altitude exposure. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 761.

  12. RESISTANCE TRAINING INCREASES POSSIBILITY OF A POSITIVE DRUG TEST

    Kraemer, W. J., & Ratamess, N. A. (2005). Hormonal responses and adaptations to resistance exercise and training. Sports Medicine, 35, 339-361.

  13. DETECTION OF BANNED DRUGS IS NOT AN EXACT PROCEDURE

    Audran, M. (2002). Methodologies used to screen for doping agents. Annales Pharmaceutiques Francaises, 60, 310-313.

  14. DRUG-ANALYSIS CHEMICALS INTERACT WITH SUBSTANCES IN URINE AND INCREASE THEIR PRESENCE

    van de Kerkhof, D. H., van Ooijen, R. D., de Boer, D., Fokkens, R. H., Nibbering, N. M., Zwikker, J. W., Thijssen, J. H., & Maes, R. A. (2002). Artifact formation due to ethyl thio-incorporation into silylated steroid structures as determined in doping analysis. Journal of Chromatography A, 954, 199-206.

  15. SECONDARY EFFECTS SHOULD BE ADDED TO POSITIVE TEST RESULTS TO DECLARE A CHEAT

    Martalo, O., Claessens, N., & Pierard, G. E. (2001). Skin betrayal, above athletic performance. Revue Medicale de Liege, 56, 261-264.

  16. A MULTI-TEST REGIMEN MIGHT INCREASE THE RELIABILITY OF rhEPO TESTING

    Magnani, M., Corsi, D., Bianchi, M., Paiardini, M., Galluzzi, L., Gargiullo, E., Parisi, A., & Pigozzi, F. (2001). Identification of blood erythroid markers useful in revealing erythropoietin abuse in athletes. Blood Cells, Molecules, and Diseases, 27, 559-571. [Copyright 2001 Academic Press].

  17. HAIR ANALYSIS COULD BE USED TO CROSS-VALIDATE DRUG TEST RESULTS

    Midio, A. F., de Moraes Moreau, R. L., & Silva, O. A. (2001). The possibilities of hair analysis in the determination of involuntary doping in sports. Sports Medicine, 31, 321-324.

  18. HAIR ANALYSIS CAN BE USED TO CONFIRM DRUG USE

    Dumestre-Toulet, V., Cirimele, V., Ludes, B., Gromb, S., & Kintz, P. (2002). Hair analysis of seven bodybuilders for anabolic steroids, ephedrine, and clenbuterol. Journal of Forensic Science, 47, 211-214.

  19. FUNGAL CONTAMINATION OF URINE SAMPLES CAN INCREASE TESTOSTERONE AND DISTORT THE T/TE RATIO

    Kicman, A. T., Fallon, J. K., Cowan, D. A., Walker, C., Easmon, S., & Mackintosh, D. (2002). Candida albicans in urine can produce testosterone: impact on the testosterone/epitestosterone sports drug test. Clinical Chemistry, 48, 1799-1801.

  20. REDUCING URINE CONTAMINATION

    Lab Tests Online. (May 11, 2005). Urine culture. [http://www.labtestsonline.org/understanding/analytes/urine_culture/sample.html].

  21. BACTERIA IN URINE

    Barer, M. R., & Bogosian, G. (2004). Letter to the Editor: The viable but nonculturable concept, bacteria in urine samples, and Occam's Razor. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 42, 5434-5435.

  22. SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF URINE

    Canadian Center for Ethics in Sport. (2005). Doping-Free Sport : Sample Collection Procedures. [http://www.cces.ca/forms/index.cfm?dsp=template&act=view3&template_id=132&lang=e] and [http://www.paralympic.org/release/Main_Sections_Menu/Anti_Doping/Education/WADA_Doping_Control_Flyer_ENGLISH.pdf].

  23. SUMMARY OF ERGOGENIC POTENTIAL OF SOME BANNED AND NON-BANNED SUBSTANCES

    Juhn, M. (2003). Popular sports supplements and ergogenic aids. Sports Medicine, 33(12), 921-939.

  24. ONLY ELITE ATHLETES ARE INFLUENCED BY THE THREATS FROM THE ANTI-DRUGS-IN-SPORT MOVEMENT

    Chester, N., Reilly, T., & Mottram, D. R. (2003). Over-the-counter drug use amongst athletes and non-athletes. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 43(1), 111-118.

  25. DRUG DEPENDENCE IS NOT A CHARACTERISTIC OF ELITE ATHLETES

    Franques, P., Auriacombe, M., & Tignol, J. (2001). Sports, use of performance enhancing drugs and addiction. A conceptual and epidemiological review. Annales de Medecine Interne, 152 Supplement 7, 37-49.

  26. SERIOUS ATHLETES ARE POSSIBLY OVER-MEDICATED

    Corrigan, B., & Kazlauskas, R. (2000). Medication use in athletes selected for doping control at the Sydney Olympics (2000). Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 13, 33-40.

  27. GOVERNMENTS EASILY ACCEPT SPORT-DOPING MYTHS AS TRUTHS

    Boulu, R. G. (2002). New provisions for prevention and fight against doping. Annales Pharmaceutiques Francaises, 60, 291-295.

  28. HIGH SCHOOL DRUG USE IS UNRELATED TO ANY SPORT FACTOR

    Yamaguchi, R., Johnston, L. D., & O'Malley, P. M. (2003). Relationship between student illicit drug use and school drug-testing policies. Journal of School Health, 73, 159-164.

  29. ANTI-DOPING DRUG USE IN THE GENERAL PUBLIC IN SWEDEN

    Eklof, A. C., Thurelius, A. M., Garle, M., Rane, A., & Sjoqvist, F. (2003). The anti-doping hot-line, a means to capture the abuse of doping agents in the Swedish society and a new service function in clinical pharmacology. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 59, 571-577.

    STEROIDS AND PROHORMONES

  30. STEROIDS ARE NOT PERFORMANCE ENHANCING

    Lamb, D. R. (1984). Anabolic steroids in athletics: how well do they work and how dangerous are they? American Journal of Sports Medicine, 12, 31-38.

  31. ANABOLIC-ANDROGENIC STEROIDS DO NOT INFLUENCE PERFORMANCE TO THE DEGREE THAT IS POPULARLY BELIEVED

    Yesalis, C. E., & Bahrke, M. S. (1995). Anabolic-androgenic steroids: Current issues. Sports Medicine, 19, 326-340.

  32. STEROIDS DO NOT IMPROVE ENDURANCE AND ONLY IMPROVE STRENGTH IF THE DOSE IS LARGE ENOUGH

    Bhasin, S., Woodhouse, L., & Storer, T W. (2001). Proof of the effect of testosterone on skeletal muscle. Journal of Endocrinology, 170, 27-38.

  33. ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS ARE NOT PERFORMANCE ENHANCING

    Kutscher, E. C., Lund, B. C., Perry, & P. J. (2002). Anabolic steroids: a review for the clinician. Sports Medicine, 32, 285-296.

  34. TESTOSTERONE ENHANCED PERFORMANCES ARE LOST UPON CESSATION

    Weatherby, R. P., Giorgi, A., & Kazlauskas, R. (May, 2002). Retention of performance gains following testosterone enanthate administration. Sixth IOC World Congress on Sport Sciences, abstract, p. 90.

  35. TESTOSTERONE IS PREFERABLE FOR USE THAN GROWTH HORMONE

    Ullis, K., & Shackman, J. (no date). Growth hormone vs. testosterone: A retrospective based on the latest research. www.United-Pharmancy.com. [http://www.mesomorphosis.com/articles/ullis/growth-hormone.chtm].

  36. STRENGTH TRAINING ALTERS SERUM CORTISOL BUT NOT TESTOSTERONE

    Carlson, L. A., DeBruin, J., Tuckow, A. P., Marelli, B. S., & Headley, S. (2004). Testosterone and cortisol responses following resistance exercise and carbohydrate supplementation. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 2086.

  37. ANDROSTENEDIONE DOES NOT CHANGE THE TESTOSTERONE: EPITESTOSTERONE RATIO

    Brown, G. A., Vukovich, M. D., Kohut, M. A., Franke, W., Jackson, D. A., King, D. S., & Bowers, L. D. Urinary excretion of steroid metabolites following chronic androstenedione ingestion. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1835.

  38. HIGH LEVELS OF ANDROSTENEDIONE CAUSES TESTOSTERONE TO RISE

    Dehennin, L., Bonnaire, Y., & Plou, P. (2001). Human nutritional supplements in the horse. Dehydroepiandrosterone versus androstenedione: comparative effects on the androgen profile and consequences for doping analysis. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 25, 685-690.

  39. ANDROSTENEDIOL CHANGES BLOOD HORMONES BUT DOES NOT ENHANCE PERFORMANCE

    Brown, G. A., Drouin, J. M., & McKenzie, D. (2005). Resistance exercise does not change the hormonal response to sublingual androstenediol intake. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37(5), Supplement abstract 217.

  40. ENDOGENOUS ANABOLIC HORMONE INCREASES WITH RESISTANCE TRAINING IN YOUNG FEMALES

    Aizawa, K., Akimoto, T., Inoue, H., Kimura, F., Joo, M. Murai, F., Mesaki, N., & Tanaka, K. (2003). Resting serum DHEAS level increases after weight-week resistance training among young females. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 2064.

  41. EFFECTS OF EXCESSIVE USE OF ANDROGENIC-ANABOLIC STEROIDS

    Hartgens, F., & Kuipers, H. (2004). Effects of androgenic-anabolic steroids in athletes. Sports Medicine, 34, 513-554.

  42. AFFECTS FROM STEROID ABUSE ARE REVERSIBLE

    Urhausen, A., Torsten, A., & Wilfried, K. (2003). Reversibility of the effects on blood cells, lipids, liver function, and hormones in former anabolic-androgenic steroid abusers. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 84, 369-375.

  43. STEROID USERS ARE NOT CONCERNED ABOUT HEALTH RISKS

    Parkinson, A. B., & Evans, N. A. (2005). Anabolic steroids: A survey of 500 users. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37(5), Supplement abstract 205.

  44. STEROID AND HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPHIN USE IMPAIRS MALE FERTILITY

    Karila, T., Hovatta, O., & Seppala, T. (2004). Concomitant abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids and human chorionic gonadotrophin impairs spermatogenesis in power athletes. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 25, 257-263.

  45. PROHORMONES ARE NOT PERFORMANCE ENHANCING

    Maughan, R. J , King, D. S., & Lea, T. (2004). Dietary supplements. Journal of Sports Science, 22, 95-113.

  46. CREATINE AND PROHORMONES ARE NOT PERFORMANCE ENHANCING

    Gomez, J. E. (2002). Performance-enhancing substances in adolescent athletes. Texas Medicine, 98(2), 41-46.

  47. THE INDIVIDUALITY OF REACTION TO DRUGS

    Peng, S. H, Segura, J., Farre, M., Gonzalez, J. C, de la Torre, X. (2002). Plasma and urinary markers of oral testosterone undecanoate misuse. Steroids, 67, 39-50.

  48. WHY VETS USE STEROIDS

    Greater Dallas Council on Alcohol and Drug Abuse. (November 22, 2005). Steroids. [http://www.gdcada.org/statistics/steroids.htm].

  49. WHY STEROIDS ARE PRODUCED?

    National Institute on Drug Abuse. (March, 2005). NIDA InfoFacts: Steroids (Anabolic-Androgenic). The Science of Drug Abuse and Addiction. [http://www.nida.nih.gov/Infofacts/Steroids.html].

  50. HDL LEVEL IS AN AUXILIARY INDICATOR OF STEROID ABUSE

    Alen, M., & Rahkila, P. (1984). Reduced high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in power athletes: use of male sex hormone derivates, an atherogenic factor. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 5, 341-342.

  51. PROHORMONES REMAIN IN THE BODY FOR A LONG TIME

    Delbeke, F. T., Van Eenoo, P., Van Thuyne, W., & Desmet, N. (2002). Prohormones and sport. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 83, 245-251.

    NANDROLONE

  52. 19-NORANDROSTENEDIONE AND 19-NORANDROSTENEDIOL NOT FOUND TO BE PRECURSORS OF NANDROLONE

    Dehennin, L., Bonnaire, Y., & Plou, P. (2002). Human nutritional supplements in the horse: comparative effects of 19-norandrostenedione and 19-norandrostenediol on the 19-norsteroid profile and consequences for doping control. Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, 766, 257-263.

  53. TESTING FOR NANDROLONE IS UNRELIABLE

    Baume, N., Avios, L., Cauderay, M. Dvorak, J., Mangin, P., & Saugy, M. (2004). C13-labeled Nandrolone excretion in trained athletes: Effect of exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 1157.

  54. QUESTIONS ABOUT WADA TESTING FOR NANDROLONE

    Professor Paul May, School of Chemistry, University of Bristol. (October, 2000). Nandrolone. [http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/motm/nandrolone/nandj.htm].

  55. NANDROLONE AND TESTING LEVELS

    Bricout, V., & Wright, F. (2004). Update on nandrolone and norsteroids: How endogenous or xenobiotic are these substances? European Journal of Applied Physiology, 92, 1-12.

  56. INTERINDIVIDUAL VARIABILITY OF NANDROLONE METABOLITES MEANS SINGLE STANDARDS ARE UNFAIR TO SOME INDIVIDUALS

    Baume, N., Avois, L., Schweizer, C., Cardis., C, Dvorak, J., Cauderay, M., Mangin, P., Saugy, M. (2004). [13C]Nandrolone excretion in trained athletes: interindividual variability in metabolism. Clinical Chemistry, 50(2), 355-364.

  57. INJURY INCREASES NANDROLONE METABOLITES IN SOME MALE ATHLETES

    Kohler, R. M., Lambert, M. I., Hall, K., & Davis, S. (May, 2004). Effect of musculoskeletal injury on endogenous nandrolone metabolism. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 36(5), Supplement abstract 1159, S171.

  58. NANDROLONE METABOLITES ARE MORE LIKELY TO BE FOUND IN PROFESSIONAL FOOTBALL PLAYERS

    Gambelunghe, C., Sommavilla, M., & Rossi, R. (2002). Testing for nandrolone metabolites in urine samples of professional athletes and sedentary subjects by GC/MS/MS analysis. Biomedical Chromatography, 16(8), 508-512.

  59. GAMES STIMULATE NANDROLONE METABOLITE PRODUCTION IN PROFESSIONAL SOCCER PLAYERS

    Le, B. B., Bryand, F., Gaudin, I., Monteau, F., Poulain, F., Andre, F. (2002). Endogenous nandrolone metabolites in human urine. Two-year monitoring of male professional soccer players. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 26, 43-47.

  60. THERAPEUTIC DOSES OF NANDROLONE DECANOATE DO NOT PRODUCE ANY MUSCLE GROWTH EFFECTS WHILE EXCEPTIONAL DOSES OF AASs DO

    Hartgens F, van Straaten H, Fideldij S, Rietjens G, Keizer HA, Kuipers H. (2002). Misuse of androgenic-anabolic steroids and human deltoid muscle fibers: Differences between polydrug regimens and single drug administration. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 86, 233-239.

    HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE

  61. HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE UNRELATED TO PERFORMANCE DIFFERENCES

    Godfrey, R. J., Whyte, G. P., & Head, A. (2003). Human growth hormone response to exercise in elite and club-level rowers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1846.

  62. GROWTH HORMONE INFUSION DOES NOT IMPROVE HIGH-INTENSITY AEROBIC WORK

    Irving, B. A., Anderson, S. M., Weltman, J. Y., Watson-Winfield, D. D., Frick, K. I., Evans, W. S., Veldhuis, J. D., & Weltman, A. (2003). Time of exercise initiation following GH infusion does not affect metabolic and performance responses during acute exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1360.

  63. THERE IS NO SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE THAT GROWTH HORMONE IS PERFORMANCE ENHANCING

    Bidlingmaier, M., Wu, Z., & Strasburger, C. J. (2001). Doping with growth hormone. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, 14, 1077-1083.

  64. GROWTH HORMONE USE IS NOT LIKELY TO ENHANCE PERFORMANCE

    Jenkins, P. J. (June, 2001). Growth hormone and exercise: physiology, use and abuse. Growth Hormone & IGF Research, 11, Supplement A, pp. S71-77.

  65. HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE DOES NOT IMPROVE MUSCLE STRENGTH

    Dean, H. (2002). Does exogenous growth hormone improve athletic performance? Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine, 12, 250-253.

  66. NUTRITION PLAYS A MAJOR ROLE IN THE GH--IGF-I RESPONSE TO EXERCISE

    Nemet, D., Connolly, P. H., Galassetti, P., Rose-Gottron, C., Larson, J. K., Pescatello, A. M., & Cooper, D. M. (2003) Nutrition plays a major role in the GH--UFG-I response to exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1362.

  67. TRAINING STATUS AND EXERCISE INTENSITY SIGNIFICANTLY AFFECT THE GH--IGF-I RESPONSE IN WOMEN

    Copeland, J. L., & Tremblay, M. S. (2003). Resistance training and the GH/IGF-I axis in women; Influence of age, estrogen, and training status. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1363.

  68. GROWTH HORMONE RESPONDS TO RESISTANCE TRAINING

    Goto, K., Ishii, N., Kaneko, F., Kizuka, T., & Takamatsu, K. (2004). Relationship between magnitude of acute hormonal responses and muscular adaptations during resistance training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 2085.

  69. RESISTANCE EXERCISE STIMULATES MORE GROWTH HORMONE THAN AEROBIC EXERCISE

    Consitt, L. A., Bloomer, R. J., & Wideman, L. (2005). The response of immunofunctional and total growth hormone to acute aerobic and resistance exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37(5), Supplement abstract 1859.

  70. GROWTH HORMONES IN HIGH DOSES EXERT AN ANABOLIC EFFECT

    Healy, M. L., Gibney, J., Russell-Jones, D. L., Pentecost, C., Croos, P., Sonksen, P. H., & Umpleby, A. M. (2003). High dose growth hormone exerts an anabolic effect at rest and during exercise in endurance-trained athletes. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 88, 5221-5226.

  71. PRIOR ENDURANCE EXERCISE ATTENUATES THE POST-RESISTANCE EXERCISE GROWTH HORMONE RESPONSE

    Goto, K., Higashiyama, M., Ishii, N., & Takmatsu, K. (2005). Prior endurance exercise attenuates growth hormone response to subsequent resistance exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37(5), Supplement abstract 1249.

  72. GROWTH HORMONE AND LUTEINIZING HORMONE ONLY AFFECTED BY AEROBIC EXERCISE

    Rarick, K. R., Tuckow, A. P., Alemany, J. A., Staab, J. S., Welsh, T. T., Sharp, M. A., Kellog, M. D., & Nindl, B. C. (2005). Exercise mode and volume differentially affect growth hormone and luteinizing hormone secretion patterns. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37(5), Supplement abstract 1855.

  73. ROWING TRAINING NOT PHYSIOLOGICALLY (hGH) SENSITIVE

    Godfrey, R., Whyte, G. P., & Head, T. (2004). Acute human growth hormone response in elite rowers after 12- weeks of training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 2084.

  74. CONTAMINATED MEATS A POSSIBLE SOURCE OF BANNED DRUGS

    Weise, E. (April 2, 2004). Growth hormones in veal spark debate. USAToday, 1B.

  75. DIFFICULTIES WITH HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE TESTING

    Bidlingmaier, M., Wu, Z., & Strasburger, C. J. (2003). Problems with GH doping in sports. Journal of Endocrinology Investigations, 26(9), 924-931.

  76. POTENTIAL BUT LIMITED USE TEST FOR GROWTH HORMONE USE

    Radetti, G., Bui, F., Tonini, G., Bellone, J., Pagani, S., & Bozzola, M. (2004). Growth hormone (GH) isoforms following acute 22-kDa GH injection: Is it useful to detect GH abuse? International Journal of Sports Medicine, 25, 205-208.

  77. AN EXERCISE TEST FOR UNUSUAL GROWTH HORMONE LEVELS AND RESPONSES

    Ehrnborg, C., Lange, K. H., Dall, R., Christiansen, J. S., Lundberg, P. A., Baxter, R. C., Boroujerdi, M. A., Bengtsson, B. A., Healey, M. L., Pentecost, C., Longobardi, S., Napoli, R., & Rosen, T. (2003). The growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I axis hormones and bone markers in elite athletes in response to a maximum exercise test. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 88, 394-401.

  78. SINGLE TESTS ARE INADEQUATE FOR HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE

    Di Luigi, L., & Guidetti, L. (2002). IGF-I, IGFBP-2, and -3: do they have a role in detecting rhGH abuse in trained men? Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34, 1270-1278.

  79. GROWTH HORMONE SUBSTANCES CAN BE UNUSUALLY HIGH BECAUSE OF NATURAL ATTRIBUTES OF ELITE ATHLETES

    Armanini, D., Faggian, D., Scaroni, C., & Plebani, M. (2002). Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I in a Sydney Olympic gold medalist. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 36, 148-149.

    ERYTHROPOIETIN (EPO)

  80. FUNCTION AND DANGERS OF ERYTHROPOIETIN USE

    Spivak, J. L. (2001). Erythropoietin use and abuse: When physiology and pharmacology collide. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 502, 207-224.

  81. EPO DETECTION VARIABLES INFLUENCED BY EXERCISE

    Schumacher, Y. O., Temme, J., Bueltermann, D., Schmid, A., Berg, A., & Dickhuth, H. H. (2003). The influence of endurance exercise on detection models for altered erythropoiesis. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 694.

  82. EPO TESTS ARE MOST LIKELY UNRELIABLE

    Ashenden, M. J., Gore, C. J., Parisotto, R., Sharpe, K., Hopkins, W. G, & Hahn, A. G.(2003). Effect of altitude on second-generation blood tests to detect erythropoietin abuse by athletes. Haematologica, 88, 1053-1062.

  83. NOT ALL USERS OF rhEPO WILL BE DETECTED BECAUSE THE TESTS ARE NOT GOOD ENOUGH

    Kazlauskas, R., Howe, C., & Trout, G. (2002). Strategies for rhEPO detection in sport. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 12, 229-235.

  84. EPO CAN BE INCREASED BY THREE HOURS A DAY IN A HYPOBARIC CHAMBER

    Stray-Gundersen, J., Gore, C, J., Rodriguez, F. A., Truijens, M., Townsend, N. E., Williams, K., & Levine, B. D. (2004). Effect of intermittent hypobaric hypoxia on erythropoiesis. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 2306.

  85. ERYTHROPOIESIS IS ACCELERATED BY HYPOXIC BREATHING

    Hamlin, M. J., & Hellemans, J. (2004). Effects of intermittent normobaric hypoxia on blood parameters in multi-sport endurance athletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 2316.

  86. ECHINACEA STIMULATES SIGNIFICANT EPO INCREASES

    Whitehead, M. T., Martin, T. D., Webster, M. J., & Scheett, T. P. (2005). Two weeks of oral Echinacea supplementation significantly increases circulating erythropoietin. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37(5), Supplement abstract 231.

  87. ALTITUDE SIMULATION DOES NOT STIMULATE EXTRA ERYTHROPOIETIN

    Ashenden, M. J., Hahn, A. G., Martin, D. T., Logan, P., Parisotto, R., & Gore, C. J.(2001). A comparison of the physiological response to simulated altitude exposure and r-HuEpo administration. Journal of Sports Science, 19, 831-837.

  88. ANALYSIS OF RECOMBINANT EPO HAS DIFFICULTIES

    Robinson, N., Schattenberg, L., Zorzoli, M., Mangin, P., & Saugy, M. (2005). Haematological analysis conducted at the departure of the tour de France 2001. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 26, 200-207.

  89. WADA/IOC TESTING FOR EPO IS FALSE

    Beullens, M., Delanghe, J. R., & Bollen, M. (2006). False-positive detection of recombinant human erythropoietin in urine following strenuous physical exercise. Blood, prepublished online February 21, 2006 [http://www.bloodjournal.org/cgi/content/abstract/2006-01-0028v1] .

  90. HIGH LEVELS OF EPO A CHARACTERISTIC OF CROSS-COUNTRY SKIERS

    Berglund, B., & Wide, L. (2002). Erythropoietin concentrations and isoforms in urine of anonymous Olympic athletes during the Nagano Olympic Games. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 12, 354-357.

    CAFFEINE

  91. CAFFEINE IMPROVES ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE BUT NOT BY EXCITING THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

    Meyers, B. B., & Cafarelli, E. (2002). Caffeine increases endurance without altering average motor unit firing rate during submaximal fatiguing contractions. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1428.

  92. CAFFEINE INGESTED DURING AN ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE IS NOT LIKELY TO PRODUCE A SUBSTANTIAL POST-PERFORMANCE TEST RESULT

    Kovacs, E. M., Martin, A. M., & Brouns, F. (2002). The effect of ad libitum ingestion of a caffeinated carbohydrate-electrolyte solution on urinary caffeine concentration after 4 hours of endurance exercise. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 23, 237-241.

  93. CAFFEINE ENHANCES HIGH-INTENSITY ANAEROBIC WORK

    Warpeha, J., Simpson, W., Birnbaum, L., & Herbst, J. (2004). The effects of caffeine on repeated lower-body Wingate performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 1169.

  94. CAFFEINE BOOSTS PERFORMANCE WITHOUT IMPAIRING PERCEPTUAL CAPABILITIES

    Kruisselbrink, D., Rosendahl, B., Phillips, W. L., Strokan, K. E., & Murphy, R. J. (2005). Effects of caffeine and lorazepam on the performance of female soccer players. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37(5), Supplement abstract 935.

  95. CAFFEINE IS PERFORMANCE ENHANCING

    Graham, T. E. (2001). Caffeine and exercise: metabolism, endurance, and performance. Sports Medicine, 31, 785-807.

  96. CAFFEINE IS AN EFFECTIVE ERGOGENIC AID

    Paluska, S. A. (2003). Caffeine and exercise. Current Sports Medicine Reports, 2(4), 213-219.

  97. CAFFEINE DOES NOT AFFECT A SINGLE BOUT OF ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCE

    Greer, F., Morales, J. O., Coles, M. G., & Jackson, C. G. (2005). Wingate performance and surface EMG frequency variables are not affected by caffeine ingestion. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37(5), Supplement abstract 232.

  98. CAFFEINE DOES NOT AFFECT AGILITY

    Lorino, A. J., Lloyd, L. K., Crixell, S. H., Walker, J. L., & Ransone, J. W. (2005). The effects of caffeine on athletic agility. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37(5), Supplement abstract 234.

  99. CAFFEINE IMPROVES THE ERGOGENIC EFFECT OF PSEUDOEPHEDRINE

    Weatherby, R. P., & Rogerson, S. (May, 2002). Caffeine potentiation of the performance enhancing effects of pseudoephedrine. Sixth IOC World Congress on Sport Sciences, abstract, p. 110.

  100. CAFFEINE ONLY AFFECTS VOLUNTARY PERFORMANCE

    Doyle, A., & Cafarelli, E. (2003). Caffeine alters voluntary but not reflex activation of single human motor units. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1559.

  101. REPEATED CAFFEINE DOSES MAINTAIN PERFORMANCE LEVELS IN PROLONGED SLEEPLESSNESS

    McLellan, T. M., Bell, D. G., & Kamimoir, G. H. (2004). The effect of caffeine on run times to exhaustion 85% VO2max following a night of sleep loss. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 141.

  102. CAFFEINE EFFECTS LAST ALL DAY

    Bell, D. G., & McLellan, T. M. (2003). Repeated exercise performance and caffeine ingestion. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1476.

  103. CAFFEINE EFFECTS ARE MODERATED BY LEVELS OF VOLUNTARY EFFORT

    Kalmar, J. M., & Cafarelli, E. (2003). Caffeine increases central excitability during a submaximal fatigue protocol. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1560.

  104. CAFFEINE INGESTION DOES NOT INCREASE HEAT-TOLERANCE

    Roti, M. W., Pumereantz, A. C., Watson, G., Judelson, D. A., Larsen, M. S., Sokmen, B., Dias, J. C., Ruffin, K., Casa, D. J., & Armstrong, L. E. (2004). Influence of caffeine ingestion on fluid-electrolyte, psychological, and physiological responses during an exercise heat-tolerance test. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 142.

  105. CAFFEINE REDUCES MUSCLE PAIN PERCEPTIONS

    O'Connor, P. J., Motl, R. W., & Broglio, S. P. (2004). Dose-dependent effect of caffeine on reducing leg muscle pain during cycling. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 1513.

    OTHER DRUGS AND PROCEDURES

  106. EPHEDRINE ENHANCES MUSCULAR ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE EARLY IN THE EXERCISE

    Jacobs, I., Pasternak, H., & Bell, D. G. (2003). Effects of ephedrine, caffeine, and their combination on muscular endurance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35, 987-994.

  107. BLOOD DOPING ENHANCES ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE

    Kalinski, M. I., Dunbar, C. C., & Szygula, Z. (2003). Evidence of state-sponsored blood doping research program in former Soviet Union. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1483.

  108. ORIGINAL PROBLEMS WITH BLOOD DOPING

    Gledhill, N. (1982). Blood doping and related issues: a brief review. Medicine and Science in Exercise and Sports, 14, 183-189.

  109. THAT CROSS-COUNTRY SKIERS USE BLOOD DOPING TO A GREAT DEGREE IS A SUBJECTIVE INTERPRETATION OF DATA

    Stray-Gundersen, J., Videman, T., Penttila, I., & Lereim, I. (2003). Abnormal hematologic profiles in elite cross-country skiers: blood doping or? Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine, 13, 132-137.

  110. PANAX NOTOGINSENG IMPROVES PERFORMANCE TO EXHAUSTION

    Liang, M. T., Podolka, T. D., & Chuang, W. (2003). Panax Notoginseng supplement improves endurance and oxygen uptake but not skin blood flow. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1486.

  111. OXYGENATED WATER CONSUMPTION DOES NOT ALTER CIRCULATORY OXYGEN DYNAMICS

    Porcari, J. P., Witt., L., Foster, C., Aiuppa, T., & Doberstein, S. (2003). The effects of oxygenated water o heart rate and arterial saturation responses during hypoxia. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1488.

  112. DHEA SUPPLEMENTATION DOES NOT IMPROVE PERFORMANCE OR HAVE ANDROGENIC EFFECTS IN MALES

    Deuster, P. A., Sutton, E., Criqui, M., Faraday, M., & Poth, M. (2004). DHEA effects on metabolism and exercise performance in men. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 1185.

  113. THG HAS ELEMENTARY ANDROGEN AND PROGESTIN PROPERTIES BUT HAS YET TO BE SHOWN TO AFFECT PERFORMANCE

    Death, A. K., McGrath, K. C., Kazlauskas, R., & Handelsman, D. J. (2004). Tetrahydrogestrinone is a potent androgen and progestin. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 89, 2498-2500.

  114. ASTHMA DRUG NOT PERFORMANCE ENHANCING

    Spiering, B. A., Baumann, J. M., & Rundell, K. W. (2004). Montelukast has no ergogenic effects during cycling in sub-freezing conditions. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 119.

  115. ASTHMA MEDICINE DOES NOT IMPROVE ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE

    Carlsen, K. H., Hem, E., Stensrud, T., Held, T., Herland, K., & Mowinckel, P. (2001). Can asthma treatment in sports be doping? The effect of the rapid onset, long-acting inhaled beta2-agonist formoterol upon endurance performance in healthy well-trained athletes. Respiratory Medicine, 95, 571-576.

  116. ASTHMA TREATMENT IS POSSIBLE IN ATHLETES

    Keles, N. (2002). Treating allergic rhinitis in the athlete. Rhinology, 40, 211-214.

  117. ASTHMA CAN BE CONTROLLED BUT IS A COMMON PART OF SPORT PARTICIPATION

    Marchi, A., & Ricci, A. (2002). Management of the asthmatic adolescent. Minerva Pediatrica, 54, 587-597.

  118. ASTHMA MEDICINES DO NOT HAVE ERGOGENIC EFFECTS

    McKenzie, D. C., Stewart, I. B., Fitch, K. D. (2002). The asthmatic athlete, inhaled beta agonists, and performance. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 12, 225-228.

  119. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE NOT EFFECTIVE WITH COLLEGE STUDENTSí PERFORMANCES

    Johnson, K. D., & Nicks, C. (2004). Effects of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride on reaction time and selected exercise tasks. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 1181.

  120. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE IMPROVES ENDURANCE RUNNING PERFORMANCE

    Hodges, K., Hancock, S., Currell, K., & Jeukendrup, A. (2005). Pseudoephedrine enhances 1500 m running performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37(5), Supplement abstract 230.

  121. L-CARNITANE SUPPLEMENTATION INCREASES TESTOSTERONE LEVELS AND ANDROGEN RECEPTOR CONTENT

    Spiering, B. A., Kraemer, W. J., Volek, J. S., Ratmess, N. A., VanHeest, J. L., Sharman, M. J., Rubin, M. R., French, D. N., Judelson, D. A., & Maresh, C. A. (2005). Testosterone and androgen receptor responses to resistance exercise: Effects of L-carnitane supplementation. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37(5), Supplement abstract 1245.

  122. ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER MEDICATION CONFLICTS WITH BANNED DRUG LIST ENTRIES

    Corrigan, B. (2003). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in sport: A review. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 24, 535-540.

  123. DIURETICS AND BETA-BLOCKERS REDUCE PERFORMANCE

    Krzesinski ,J. M., & Ancion, G. (2001). Sports and hypertension. Revue Medicale de Liege, 56, 306-312.

  124. THERAPEUTIC DOSES OF EPHEDRINES ARE DETECTABLE FOR VARYING PERIODS

    Chester, N., Mottram, D. R., Reilly, T., & Powell, M. (2004). Elimination of ephedrines in urine following multiple dosing: the consequences for athletes, in relation to doping control. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 57, 62-67.

  125. AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE ROLE OF EPITESTOSTERONE

    Starka, L. (2003). Epitestosterone. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 87, 27-34.

  126. CHRONIC CREATINE USE DOES NOT ENDANGER THE KIDNEYS

    Farquhar, W. B., & Zambraski, E. J. (2002). Effects of creatine use on the athlete's kidney. Current Sports Medicine Reports, 1, 103-106.

  127. CANNABINOIDS ARE NOT PERFORMANCE ENHANCING

    Campos, D. R., Yonamine, M., & de Moraes Moreau, R. L. (2003). Marijuana as doping in sports. Sports Medicine, 33, 395-399.

  128. POPPY SEEDS LEAD TO POSITIVE DRUG TESTS

    Thevis, M., Opfermann, G., & Schanzer, W. (2003). Urinary concentrations of morphine and codeine after consumption of poppy seeds. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 27, 53-56.

  129. BOVINE COLOSTRUM DOES NOT ALTER INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR-I

    Kuipers, H., van Breda, E., Verlaan, G., & Smeets, R. (2002). Effects of oral bovine colostrum supplementation on serum insulin-like growth factor-I levels. Nutrition, 18, 566-567.

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