Volume 11(3): November, 2005

FUEL AND ERGOGENIC AIDS 4.2 - GENERAL

This third issue of Volume 11 of Coaching Science Abstracts reviews articles concerned with fuel and ergogenic aids. Previous articles on these topics are contained in Volume 2(3), Volume 5(3), and Volume 8(3). This issue is divided into the subsections of general dietary implications, carbohydrates, caffeine, other substances, and ergogenic aids.

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    GENERAL DIETARY IMPLICATIONS

  1. FEMALE SWIMMERS NEED A LARGE AMOUNT OF ENERGY INTAKE WHEN IN HEAVY TRAINING

    Trappe, T. A., Gastaldelli, A., Jozsi, A. C., Troup, J. P., & Wolfe, R. P. (1997). Energy expenditure of swimmers during high volume training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29, 950-954.

  2. DEFINITIVE WORDS FROM A PROFESSOR OF NUTRITIONAL SCIENCES

    Rushall notes, 2003.

  3. FEMALE ATHLETES TEND TO IRON DEFICIENCY

    Landahl, G., Borjesson, M., & Rodjer, S. (2003). Iron deficiency and anemia: A common problem among junior athletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 692.

  4. BASKETBALL PLAYERS ARE OFTEN IRON DEFICIENT

    Constantini, N. W. (2003). Prevalence of iron deficiency and anemia in top-level basketball players. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 693.

  5. EARLY-PUBERTAL BOYS USE FATS FOR ENERGY MORE THAN OLDER BOYS

    Stephens, B. R., & Mahon, A. D. (2003). The effect of maturation on fuel use during exercise in boys. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1165.

  6. EXERCISE SLOWS GASTRIC EMPTYING OF FLUID SUPPLEMENTS

    Leiper, J. B., Nicholas, C. W., Ali, A., Williams, C., & Maughan, R. J. (2003). The effect of intermittent high-intensity running on the rate of gastric emptying in man. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1181.

  7. SERIOUS ATHLETES ARE AT RISK FOR THE FEMALE ATHLETE TRIAD

    Torsveit, M. K., & Sundgot-Borgen, J. (2003). Are elite athletes less at risk for the female athlete triad compared to non-athletic controls? Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1839.

  8. INTENSE TRAINING REMOVES GENDER DIFFERENT SUBSTRATE UTILIZATION

    Achten, J., Wallis, G. A., Shaw, C., Tarnopolsky, M. A., Greeves, J. P., & Casey, A. (2004). Differences in substrate utilization between men and women disappear after a period of intensified training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 158.

    CARBOHYDRATES

  9. ONLY SOME ATHLETES MIGHT BENEFIT FROM PRE-EXERCISE GLUCOSE INGESTION

    Smith, G. J., Rhodes, E. C., & Langill, R. H. (2002). The effect of pre-exercise glucose ingestion on performance during prolonged swimming. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 12, 136-144.

  10. CARBOGEN HAS AN ERGOGENIC EFFECT ON ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE

    Frank, L. L., Baer, J. T., Lambert, C. P., & Anderson, M. L. (2002). The effects of a pre-exercise feeding with or without fungal carbohydrases (CarbogenTM) on blood parameters and exercise performance in elite cyclists: A preliminary study. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 12, 310-317.

  11. CHO INGESTION HAS NO EFFECT ON SKILLS PERFORMANCE

    Ali, A., Nicholas, C. W., Brooks, J. H., Davison, S., Foskett, A., & Williams, C. (2002). The influence of carbohydrate ingestion on soccer skill performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 13.

  12. SPRINTING IN THE HEAT NOT EFFECTED BY CHO INTAKE

    Roti, M. W., Hatch, J. L., Sutherland, J. W., Mahood, N. V., Clements, J. M., Seen, A. D., Fiala, K. A., Casa, D. J., Armstrong, L. E., & Maresh, C. M (2002). Influences of exogenous carbohydrate ingestion on running performance and physiological variables in the heat. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 767.

  13. CHO GEL AS A SUPPLEMENT IS AS GOOD AS CHO LIQUID

    Brooks, D., Bradley, J. L., Lane, P., & Hodgson, R. (2002). Assessment of the effects of an isotonic carbohydrate get on exercise performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 769.

  14. CARBOHYDRATE INGESTION IMPROVES RUNNING INTENSITY BUT DOES NOT CHANGE RPE

    Utter, A. C., Kang, J., Robertson, R. J., Nieman, D. C., Chaloupka, E., Suminski, R. R., Piccinni, C. R., Teles, A. L., & Davis, J. M. (2002). The effect of carbohydrate ingestion on ratings of perceived exertion during a competitive marathon. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 948.

  15. PRE-PERFORMANCE CHO DOES NOT AFFECT PERFORMANCE

    Moseley, L., Lancaster, G. I., Jentjens, R. L., Achten, J., & Jeukendrup, A. E. (2002). The effect of time of pre-exercise carbohydrate feedings on metabolism and cycling performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1145.

  16. CHO INGESTION VERY BENEFICIAL FOR BOYS’ FUEL UTILIZATION

    Riddell, M. C., Timmons, B. W., & Bar-Or, O. (2002). Substrate utilization with and without 13C-enriched carbohydrate intake in boys and men. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1146.

  17. GALACTOSE AND TREHALOSE POSSIBLY BETTER THAN GLUCOSE PRE-EXERCISE

    Jentjens, R. L., Achten, J., Moseley, L., & Jeukendrup, A. E. (2002). The effects of pre-exercise trehalose, galactose, and glucose ingestion on metabolism and cycling performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1147.

  18. CHO NOT PARTICULARLY USEFUL FOR WOMEN’S BASKETBALL

    Odland, L. M., & Johnson, S. W. (2002). Effects of carbohydrate ingestion on performance during a competitive “stop-and-go” sport (basketball). Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1289.

  19. HIGH-INTENSITY PERFORMANCE NOT AFFECTED BY PRE-EXERCISE CARBOHYDRATE OR TRIGLYCERIDE SUPPLEMENTATION

    Khodiguian, N., Hawkins, S. A., Cornwell, A., DiCaprio, P. A., & Crespo, N. (2002). The effects of medium chain triglycerides on high intensity running performance Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1315.

  20. PRE-EXERCISE CHO FEEDING DOES NOT IMPROVE EXTENDED PERFORMANCE

    Gutch, C., Jentjens, R. L., Cale, C., & Jeukendrup, A. E. (2002). The effects of different amounts of pre-exercise carbohydrate feeding on metabolism and cycling performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1602.

  21. CHO SUPPLEMENTATION IMPROVES ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE IN MALES

    Mitchell, J. B., Costill, D. L., Houmard, J. A., Fink, W. J., Pascoe, D. D., & Pearson, D. R. (1989). Influence of carbohydrate dosage on exercise performance and glycogen metabolism. Journal of Applied Physiology, 67, 1843-1849.

  22. GLUCOSE INGESTION REDUCED MUSCLE GLYCOGEN USE

    Leatt, P B., & Jacobs, I. (1989). Effect of glucose polymer ingestion on glycogen depletion during a soccer match. Canadian Journal of Sport Sciences, 14, 112-116.

  23. BODY MASS IS INFLUENCED BY CHO INGESTION IN STRENGTH TRAINING

    Rozenek, R., Ward, P., Long, S. & Garhammer, J. (2002). Effects of high-calorie supplements on body composition and muscular strength following resistance training. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 42, 340-347.

  24. A HIGH CARBOHYDRATE DIET STALLS THE ONSET OF OVERREACHING

    Achten, J., Halson, S., Moseley, L., Rayson, M. P., Casey, A., & Jeukendrup, A. E. (2003). Effect of diet on symptoms of overreaching in runners during a period of intensified training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1163.

  25. AFTER GAME CARBOHYDRATE LOADING ASSISTS RECOVERY

    Orbetelli, R., Valquer, W. Capelli, C., & Barros, T. L. (2003). Carbohydrate loading in soccer players after the game affects mood, muscle, and physical performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1180.

  26. HIGH-CARBOHYDRATE DIETS ARE NECESSARY FOR MULTIPLE-DAY COMPETITIONS

    Palmer, G. S., Backx, K., & van Someren, K. A. (2003). The importance of high dietary carbohydrate intake during repeated days cycling performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1659.

  27. HABITUAL HIGH-CARBOHYDRATE DIETS ARE SUFFICIENT TO SUSTAIN ACTIVITY IN A SOCCER GAME

    Foskett, A., Erith, S. J., Brooks, J. H., & Williams, C. (2003). Carbohydrate ingestion and performance during soccer related activity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1660.

  28. CARBOHYDRATE SUPPLEMENTATION BETWEEN TWICE-DAILY EXERCISE SESSIONS DOES NOT IMPROVE PERFORMANCE IN THE SECOND SESSION

    Widzer, M. O., Boon, N., Lichtenberg, L. C., & Ivy, J. L. (2003). Effects of carbohydrate supplementation of pervious exercise and recovery on fuel utilization of subsequent exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1661.

  29. PRE-TIME TRIAL CHO INGESTION DOES NOT AFFECT PERFORMANCE

    Petteys, C. L., Foster, C., Brice, G., Doberstein, S., & Porcari, J. P. (2003). Effect of pre-exercise feedings on endurance performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1662.

  30. LOW GLYCEMIC INDEX MEALS IMPROVE RUNNING PERFORMANCE

    Wong, S. H., Lok, A., & Morris, J. (2003). Influence of pre-exercise carbohydrate meals on a 21-km run. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1663.

  31. LOW GLYCEMIC INDEX CHO RECOVERY MEAL AFFECTS ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE

    Stevenson, E. J., Williams, C., McComb, G., & Oram, C. (2004). Improved recovery from prolonged exercise following the consumption of low glycemic index carbohydrate meals. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 157.

  32. CHO INTAKE IMPROVES PROTEIN BALANCE FOLLOWING RESISTANCE EXERCISE

    Borsheim, E., Cree, M., Tipton, K. D., Elliott, T. A., Aarsland, A., & Wolfe, R. R. (2003). Effect of carbohydrate intake on net muscle protein balance after resistance exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1916.

  33. HIGH CONCENTRATIONS OF CARBOHYDRATE INGESTED DURING EXERCISE SPARES ENDOGENOUS CHO

    Jentjens, R. L., Achten, J., & Jeukendrup, A. E. (2004). High oxidation rates from a mixture of glucose, sucrose, and fructose during prolonged exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 151.

  34. CARBOHYDRATE SUPERCOMPENSATION DOES NOT OCCUR

    McInerney, P., Lo Giudice, S. L., Lessard, S. J., Coffey, V. G., Southgate, R. J., Burke, L. M., & Hawley, J. A. (2004). Failure of repeated carbohydrate loading to supercompensate muscle glycogen stores. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 155.

  35. CARBOHYDRATE/PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTATION IMPROVES SOME FEATURES OF HOCKEY PRACTICE

    Olson, B., & Siefert, J. (2004). The effects of a carbohydrate/protein drink on skating performance in collegiate hockey players. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 121.

  36. CARBOHYDRATE-PROTEIN SUPPLEMENT ACCELERATES GLYCOGEN RESYNTHESIS IN RECOVERY

    Berardi, J. M., Price T. B., Noreen, E. E., & Lemon, W. R. (2004). Post-exercise muscle glycogen recovery is enhanced with a carbohydrate-protein supplement. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 286.

  37. CARBOHYDRATE-PROTEIN RECOVERY DRINK DOES NOT IMPROVE SUBSEQUENT PERFORMANCE

    Millard-Stafford, M., Moore, L., Fritz, D., Snow, T., & Hitchcock, K. (2004). Recovery from exhaustive running: Efficacy of a carbohydrate-protein beverage. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 290.

  38. CARBOHYDRATE/PROTEIN BEVERAGE PROMOTES BETTER RECOVERY

    Romano, B. C., Todd, M. K., & Saunders, M. J. (2004). Effect of a 4:1 ratio carbohydrate/protein beverage on endurance performance, muscle damage, and recovery. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 851.

  39. ENERGY DRINK DOES NOT IMPROVE AEROBIC PERFORMANCE

    Umana-Alvarado, M., & Moncada-Jimenez, J. (2004). The effect of an energy drink on aerobic performance in male athletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 1177.

  40. RAISINS AS GOOD AS CHO GELS

    Kern, M., Heslin, C. J., & Rezende, R. S. (2004). Metabolic and performance effects of raisins versus sports gel as preexercise feedings in cyclists. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 1174.

  41. RAISINS+PEANUTS IS AN ACCEPTABLE PRE-GAME SNACK FOR CHILDREN

    Haskell, W. L., Spiller, G., Bolen, K., Schultz, L., Bratcher, K., Miller, B., & Myll, J. (2002). The effects of two pre-event snacks in young soccer players playing a soccer match. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1310.

  42. ALMOND-RAISIN DRINK AS GOOD AS A COMMERCIAL CHO BEVERAGE

    Bazilian, W., Sabate, J., Haddock, B., & Rajaram, S. (2004) Pre-Exercise commercial sports beverage versus almond-raisin beverage on exercise performance in male runners. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 1178.

  43. CHO AS GOOD AS CREATINE FOR SUSTAINING REPEATED HIGH-INTENSITY ACTIVITY

    Koenig, C., Benardot, D., Cody, M., & Thompson, W. R. (2004). The influence of creatine monohydrate and carbohydrate supplements on repeated jump height. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 2365.

    CAFFEINE

  44. CAFFEINE DOES NOT IMPROVE THE EFFECTS OF CHO INGESTION

    Eschbach, L. C., Drake, S. M., Boyd, J. C., Whitehead, M. T., Magal, M., & Webster, M. J. (2002). The effect of caffeine ingestion on metabolism and performance during prolonged cycling. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 488.

  45. CAFFEINE IMPROVES ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE BUT NOT BY EXCITING THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

    Meyers, B. B., & Cafarelli, E. (2002). Caffeine increases endurance without altering average motor unit firing rate during submaximal fatiguing contractions. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1428.

    OTHER SUBSTANCES

  46. OXYGENATED WATER CONSUMPTION DOES NOT ALTER CIRCULATORY OXYGEN DYNAMICS

    Porcari, J. P., Witt., L., Foster, C., Aiuppa, T., & Doberstein, S. (2003). The effects of oxygenated water o heart rate and arterial saturation responses during hypoxia. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1488.

  47. SODIUM INGESTION IMPROVES ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE

    Sims, S. T., van Vliet, L., Cotter, J. D., & Rehrer, N. J. (2004). The effect of sodium loaing on plasma volume and running performance in the heat. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 574.

  48. EPHEDRINE IS ERGOGENIC IN ENDURANCE RUNNING

    Bell, D. G., McLellan, T. M., & Sabiston, C. M. (2002). Effect of ingesting caffeine and ephedrine on 10-km run performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34, 344-349.

  49. NIACIN-BOUND CHROMIUM IMPROVED CYCLING SPRINT POWER

    Frank, L. L., & Baer, J. T. (2002). The effect of a chromium-containing beverage on sprint cycling performance after a submaximal exercise bout. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 14.

  50. TYROSINE DOES NOT IMPROVE ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE

    Chinevere, T. D., Parcell, A. C., Sawyer, R. D., Creer, A. R., & Conlee, R. K. (2002). Effects of carbohydrate and L-tyrosine ingestion on endurance exercise performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 15.

  51. PYRUVATE SUPPLEMENTATION DOES NOT ALTER BODY COMPOSITION IN ATHLETES

    Turner, M. J., McDoniel, S. O., & Kirby, B. C. (2002). Three weeks of calcium pyruvate supplementation does not alter body composition in Division I athletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 18.

  52. VITAMIN C DOES NOT ALTER OXIDATIVE PROPERTIES DURING AN ULTRAMARATHON

    Nieman, D. C., Henson, D. A., McAnulty, S. R., McAnulty, L., Swick, N. S., Utter, A. C., Vinci, D. M., Opiela, S. J., & Morrow, J. D. (2002). Influence of vitamin C supplementation on oxidative and immune changes following an ultramarathon. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 514.

  53. YOUNG ATHLETES NEED TO INCREASE CONSUMPTION OF GREEN AND YELLOW VEGETABLES

    Kimura, M., Kobata, T., Inoue, K., Hasegawa, I., & Higuchi, M. (2002). The relationship between carotenoid status and green and yellow vegetables intake in young soccer players. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1075.

  54. PHOSPHYATIDYCHOLINE MIGHT ENHANCE RESISTANCE TRAINING

    French, D. N., Volek, J. S., Avery, N. G., Scheett, T. P., Sharman, M. J., Ratamess, N. A., Rubin, M. R., Gomez, A. L., Kaiser, J., & Kraemer, W. J. (2002). Effects of polyunsaturated phosphatidycholine supplementation on performance, body composition, and recovery following repeated resistance exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1288.

  55. L-CARNITINE HAS LITTLE EFFECT ON ENDURANCE FUNCTION

    Galloway, S. D., & Abramowicz, W. N. (2002). Effects of acute and chronic L-Carnitine administration on substrate metabolism in endurance athletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1293.

  56. CORDYCEPS SINENSIS IS USELESS FOR ENDURANCE ATHLETES

    Parcell, A. C., Smith, J. M., Schulthies, S. S., Myrer, J. W., & Fellingham, G. (2002). Cordyceps sinensis supplementation does not improve endurance performance in competitive cyclists. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1295.

  57. GINSENG DOES NOT FACILITATE LACTATE REMOVAL

    Johnson, S. N., Plowman, S. A., DeLancey, M. R., Larson, B. M., Rudie, L., Miller, B., & Rzeutko, K. (2002). Effects of a ginseng and mushroom based herbal supplement on lactate response to resistance exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1300.

  58. GINSENG DOES NOT IMPROVE THE IMMUNE SYSTEM, RECOVERY, OR PERFORMANCE

    Engels, H.-J., Fahlman, M., Wirth, J. C., & Cieslak, T. J. (2002). Effects of ginseng on secretary immunoglobin A, Performance, and recovery from repetitive exhaustive exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1306.

  59. B VITAMINS DO NOT PROVIDE ADDITIONAL BENEFITS TO CARBOHYDRATE-ELECTROLYTE DRINKS

    Millard-Stafford, M. L., Rosskopf, L. B., Snow, T. K., Colwell, P., Fennessy, J. M., & Baker, C. R. (2002). Effects of sports drink with B vitamins on performance during cycling. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1304.

  60. HIGH FAT DIETS ARE ACCEPTABLE FOR PERIODS OF HIGH VOLUME TRAINING

    Wallace, M. B., & Brown, L. C. (2002). Effects of high carbohydrate v high fat diets on plasma lipoproteins, body composition, and performance in triathletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1311.

  61. HIGH-FAT DIET RESULTS IN BODY WEIGHT LOSS

    Sharman, M. J., Volek, J. S., Fleming, J., Love, D. M., Avery, N. G., Gomez, A. L., & Kraemer, W. J. (2002). Exercise performance responses to a ketogenic diet. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1313.

  62. HIGH-FAT DIETS AFFECT INDIVIDUALS DIFFERENTLY

    Burke, L. M., & Hawley, J. A. (2002). Effects of short-term fat adaptation on metabolism and performance of prolonged exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34, 1492-1498.

  63. VITAMIN E DOES NOT AFFECT RESISTANCE EXERCISE RECOVERY

    Volek, J. S., Avery, N. G., Sharman, M. J., Love, D. M., Scheett, T. P., Gomez, A. L., Kaiser, J., & Kraemer, W. J. (2002). Effects of vitamin E supplementation on recovery from repeated bouts of resistance exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1314.

  64. FEMALES RESPOND DIFFERENTLY TO MALES WITH BOVINE COLOSTRUM SUPPLEMENTATION

    Mero, A. A., Nykanen, T., Rasi, S., & Leppaluoto, J. (2002). IGF-1, IGFBP-3, growth hormone, and testosterone in male and female athletes during bovine colostrums supplementation. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1687.

  65. HIGH-FAT DIETS DO NOT COMPROMISE ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE OR STORED GLYCOGEN

    Vogt, M., Puntschart, A., Howald, J., Mueller, B., Mannhart, C., Gfeller-Tuescher, L., Mullis, P., & Hoppeler, H. (2003). Effects of dietary fat on muscle substrates, metabolism and performance in athletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35, 952-960.

  66. FLUID AND ELECTROLYTE FACTORS ARE NOT ASSOCIATED WITH MUSCLE CRAMPING

    Maughan, R. J. (1986). Exercise-induced muscle cramp: A prospective biochemical study in marathon runners. Journal of Sports Sciences, 4, 31-34.

  67. FATIGUE NOT AFFECTED BY ANTIOXIDANT SUPPLEMENTATION

    Guillory, I., Nelson, A. G., & Glickman, E. (2003). The effect of an acute dosage of an antioxidant mixture upon fatigue during intermittent work. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 807.

  68. STRENGTH TRAINING PRODUCES A GENDER-SPECIFIC POSTEXERCISE TRIGLYCERIDE RESPONSE

    Kendrick, K. H., Harvey, J. F., & Titlow, L. W. (2003). Acute strength training and postmeal triglycerides: A gender comparison. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1129.

  69. BETAINE NOT SHOWN TO PRODUCE AN EFFECT WHEN ADDED TO A REPLACEMENT FLUID

    Armstrong, L. E., Roti, M. W., Hatch, H. L., Sutherland, J. W., Mahood, N. V., Clements, J. M., Seen, A. D., Fiala, K. A., Craig, S. A., & Maresh, C. M. Rehydration with fluids containing betaine: Running performance and metabolism in a 31°C environment. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1726.

  70. FERRITIN IS NEEDED BY ADOLESCENT SWIMMERS

    Abdallah, F., Lima, F. R., & Pinto, A. L. (2004). Hematological indices and iron status in adolescent competitive swimmers of both sexes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 2049.

  71. CHOCOLATE MILK IS AN EFFECTIVE RECOVERY BEVERAGE

    Karp, J. R., Johnston, J. D., Tecklenburg, S., Mickleborough, T., Fly, A., & Stager, J. M. (2004). The efficacy of chocolate milk as a recovery aid. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 850.

  72. ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCE NOT ENHANCED BY COMPLEX SUPPLEMENT

    Hood, J. M., Chromiak, J. A., Downey, W. J., Weir, J. R., Bevill, P., Champlin, J., Lambreth, J. G., Joe, L. A., Abadie, B., R., & Altorher, G. (2004). Effect of a 10-week strength training program and recovery supplement on anaerobic performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 852.

  73. L-GLUTAMINE SUPPLEMENTATION IMPROVES RECOVERY

    Piattolly, T., & Welsch, M. A. (2004). L-glutamine supplementation: Effects on recovery from exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 853.

  74. POST-MARATHON SUPPLEMENTATION ENHANCES RECOVERY

    Talbott, S. M. (2004). Post-marathon recovery enhanced by a dietary supplement. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 854.

  75. ATP SUPPLEMENTATION DOES NOT ENHANCE ANAEROBIC POWER

    Mann, J., Jordan, A., Jurca, D., Earnest, C. (2004). Effects of oral ATP supplementation on anaerobic power. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 1158.

  76. HIGH PROTEIN DIETS NOT THE BEST FOR ATHLETES

    Rosenbloom, C. (June, 2003). High protein diets don't deliver for athletes. GSSI Sports Science News. [http://www.gssiweb.com/reflib/refs/607/highprotein.cfm?pid=96].

  77. PROTEIN INGESTION FOLLOWING RESISTANCE EXERCISE IMPROVES PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

    Cree, M., Elliott, T. A., Wolf, S. E., Sanford, A. P., Wolfe, R. R., & Tipton, K. D. (2003). Response of net muscle protein to ingestion of whole proteins following exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 556.

  78. WHEY ISOLATE IS BENEFICIAL WHEN USED WITH RESISTANCE TRAINING

    Cribb, P. J., Williams, A. D., Hayes, A., & Carey, M. F. (2002). The effect of whey isolate and resistance training on strength, body composition, and plasma glutamine. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1688.

  79. WHEY PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTATION BENEFITS BLOOD CHARACTERISTICS

    Child, R. B., Bullock, M., & Palmer, K. (2003). Physiological and biochemical effects of whey protein and ovalbumin supplementation in healthy males. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1497.

  80. WHEY PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTATION HAS NO ERGOGENIC EFFECT IN CYCLISTS

    Torry, A., Penkman, M., Sellar, C., Field, C., Jelen, P., & Bell, G. (2003). The effect of whey protein supplementation and endurance training on natural killer cell cytotoxic activity in cyclists. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 558.

  81. WHEY PROTEIN DOES NOT ENHANCE CYCLING PERFORMANCE

    Shute, M., Rankin, J. W., Saker, K., & Heffron, S. (2004). Effect of whey protein isolate on oxidative stress, exercise performance, and immunity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 1183.

  82. PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH STRENGTH INCREASES

    Vukovich, M. D., Tausz, S. M., Ballard, T. L., Stevermer, C. L., Gerlach, A. M., Vander Weerd, M. K., Binkley, T. L., & Specker, B. L. (2004). Effect of protein supplementation during a 6-month strength and conditioning program on muscular strength. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 1368.

  83. BASE-ENRICHED DIETS IMPROVE PERFORMANCE

    Schmidt, W., Schihab, T., & Prommer, N. (2003). Base-enriched nutrition improves anaerobic performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 560.

  84. SODIUM BICARBONATE INGESTION ENHANCES SPRINT PERFORMANCE

    Shearman, J. P., Van Montfoort, M. C., Van Dieren, L., & Hopkins, W. G. (2003). Effects of ingestion of sodium bicarbonate, citrate, lactate, and chloride on sprint performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1493.

  85. SODIUM BICARBONATE ENHANCES SWIMMING PERFORMANCES BUT BE CAREFUL

    Triplett-McBride, T., Bowman, S. A., Pein, R. L., & Foster, C. C. (2003). Effects of different dosages of sodium bicarbonate on swimming performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1494.

  86. SODIUM BICARBONATE MAINTAINS SPRING PERFORMANCE LEVELS

    Price, M., Moss, P., & Rance, S. (2003). Effects of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on prolonged intermittent exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35, 1303-1308.

  87. INDUCED ALKALOSIS IMPROVES THE LATTER STAGES OF INTENSE PERFORMANCE

    Forbes, S. C., Raymer, G. H., Kowalchuk, J. M., & Marsh, G. D. (2003). Metabolic effects of induced alkalosis during moderate and heavy exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 507.

  88. SODIUM BICARBONATE IMPROVES ACUTE ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCE

    Douroudos, I., Fatouros, I., Mavromatidis, K., Tsitsiosq, T., Fotinakis, P., Jamourtas, A., & Taxildaris, K. (2004). Dose-related effects of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on acid-base balance during exhausting anaerobic exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 1166.

  89. SODIUM BICARBONATE IMPROVES INTENSE EXERCISE ADAPTATION IN FEMALES

    Edge, J., Bishop, D., & Goodman, C. (2004). Chronic sodium bicarbonate ingestion affects training adaptations during severe exercise training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 1410.

  90. SODIUM CITRATE IS NOT ERGOGENIC FOR ANAEROBIC WORK

    Fernandez-Castanys B. F., Fernandez, M. D., & Garcia, J. A. (2002). The effect of sodium citrate intake on anaerobic performance in normoxia and after sudden ascent to a moderate altitude. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 42, 179-185.

  91. SODIUM CITRATE IS NOT ERGOGENIC AT MODERATE ALTITUDE

    Lopiccolo, M., Woodcock, J., Hancock, B., Davis, J. E., & Luetkemeier, M. J. (2004). Effects of sodium citrate ingestion on exercise performance at moderate altitude. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 1173.

  92. SODIUM CITRATE DOES NOT ENHANCE ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCE

    Davidson, C., Bonnici, F., McLaughlin, K., Morrill, J., Viola, A., Lail, A., Otto, R., & Wygand, J. (2004). The effect of sodium citrate ingestion on repeated bouts of isokinetic exercise performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 1980.

  93. BRANCHED CHAIN AMINO ACID NOT ERGOGENIC

    Cheuvront, S. N., Carter III, R., Kolka, M. A., Cadarette, B. S., & Sawka, M. N. (2004). Branched chain amino acids do not alter exercise performance in the heat. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 1981.

  94. GLYCEROL INGESTION IMPROVES PERFORMANCE IN THE HEAT

    Murray, R. L., Perks, A., Lindy, M. R., & Mickleborough, T. D. (2004). Ingesting a pre-exercise glycerol solution improves endurance performance in a hot environment. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 1984.

    ERGOGENIC AIDS

  95. MAGNETS DO NOT HELP ATHLETES

    Buckworth, J., & Huminsky, A. J. (2002). The influence of static magnets on upper body aerobic performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 139.

  96. NASAL DILATORS DO NOT AFFECT LACTATE THRESHOLD

    Boggs, G. W., Ward, J. R., & Stavrianeas, S. (2003). Effects of an external nasal dilator on aerobic performance among college-age women. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 2069.

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