FUNGAL CONTAMINATION OF URINE SAMPLES CAN INCREASE TESTOSTERONE AND DISTORT THE T/TE RATIO
Kicman, A. T., Fallon, J. K., Cowan, D. A., Walker, C., Easmon, S., & Mackintosh, D. (2002). Candida albicans in urine can produce testosterone: impact on the testosterone/epitestosterone sports drug test. Clinical Chemistry, 48, 1799-1801.
"Candida albicans is the most frequently isolated fungal pathogen of humans, affecting immuocompromised patients ranging from premature infants to AIDS sufferers. Systemic infections have an attributed mortality of 30-50%. Although many properties have been shown to contribute to virulence in animal studies, its pathogenesis is not well understood. Analysis of the genome has been undertaken to provide researchers with more tools to investigate Candidiasis".
Implication. This article shows how a positive T/TE test can result from organisms in urine. If a positive T/TE ratio is produced, the sample should be retested for candida albicans to see if it could have precipitated the positive ratio finding.
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