Kalinski, M. I., Dunbar, C. C., & Szygula, Z. (2003). Evidence of state-sponsored blood doping research program in former Soviet Union. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1483.

Studies using national team middle- and long-distance runners and swimmers were described. Two blood doping protocols were compared: a) 450 ml was removed, stored for 18-22 days, and reinfused; and b) 450 ml was removed on three occasions, erythrocytes separated and frozen, stored for 20-50 days, red cells thawed and resuspended in 1,000-1,100 ml, and reinfused.

VO2max was dramatically increased in training swimmers after reinfusion. Similar effects existed in other sports.

Implication. Blood doping was widely practiced in Soviet sporting teams (running, swimming, cycling, rowing, biathlon, skiing, and skating) at the 1976 and 1980 Olympic Games.

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