Volume 10(1): September, 2004

PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING 4

This first issue of Volume 10 of Coaching Science Abstracts reviews articles concerned with principles and factors associated with training program content. Three previous issues, namely Volume 1(1), Volume 4(1), and Volume 7(1), also dealt with this topic. The information from those three sources as well as that contained in this issue, will yield an extensive knowledge base of recent research in training topics associated with sports conditioning.

This volume constitutes the commencement of the fourth cycle of topics embraced by this journal.

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    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    GENERAL

    A. General effects and factors

  1. METABOLIC FACTORS DO NOT ACCOUNT FOR HIGH INTENSITY TRAINING AND TAPER BENEFITS

    Kubukeli, Z. N., St. Clair Gibson, A., Collins, M., Noakes, T. D., & Dennis, S. C. (2000). The effects of high intensity interval training, taper, and 6 weeks of habitual training on 100-km time trial performance in endurance trained cyclists. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(5), Supplement abstract 538.

  2. LACTATE PROFILES ARE NOT RELATED TO COMPETITIVE SWIMMING PERFORMANCES

    Pyne, D. B., Lee, H., & Swanwick, K. M. (2001). Monitoring the lactate threshold in world-ranked swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33, 291-297.

  3. RUNNING ECONOMY IS NOT PURELY BIOMECHANICAL

    Kyrolainen, H., Belli, A., & Komi, P. A. (2001). Biomechanical factors affecting running economy. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33, 1330-1337.

  4. SWIMMING PERFORMANCES ARE IMPROVING NORMALLY

    Stager, J. M., Skube, J., Tanner, D. A., Winston, W., & Morris, H. H. (2001). Predicting elite swim performance at the USA 2000 Olympic Swim Trials. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(5), Supplement abstract 898.

  5. STRESS IS INCREASED WHEN SWIMMING AND STUDY ARE MIXED

    Carl, D. L., Tyree, B., & Strasser, S. (2001). Effect of environment and training on mood states of competitive swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(5), Supplement abstract 1252.

  6. LOW BACK PAIN IS RARE IN SERIOUS COMPETITIVE SWIMMERS

    Cabri, J., Fernandes, R., Alves, F., & Burton, K. (2001). The prevalence of low back pain in swimmers: A comparison between elite and leisure-time swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(5), Supplement abstract 463.

  7. INITIAL MUSCLE SORENESS DISAPPEARS AS TRAINING CONTINUES

    Hiruma, E., Okamune, T., Sasaki, H., Umimura, M., & van Essen, A. (2001). Relationship between seven days of maximum endurance strength exercise and muscle damage. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(5), Supplement abstract 439.

  8. ELITE RUNNERS HAVE DIFFERENT STROKE VOLUME DYNAMICS

    Zhou, B., Conlee, R. K., Jensen, R., Fellingham, G. W., George, J. D., & Fisher, A. G. (2001). Stroke volume does not plateau during graded exercise in elite male distance runners. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(5), Supplement abstract 610.

  9. CONTINUED TRAINING DOES NOT HALT PERFORMANCE DECLINE WITH INCREASING AGE

    Wilkin, L. D., Mattern, C. O., Kim, J., Lekan, J. M., & Devor, S. T. (2001). Age and training hours as predictors of finish times of masters athletes in a triathlon. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(5), Supplement abstract 747.

  10. PHYSICAL CHANGES DO NOT OCCUR IN-SEASON IN SOCCER

    daSilva, S. G., Osiecki, R., Arruda, M., Moura, J. A., & de Campos, W. (2001). Changes in anthropometric variables and in anaerobic power and capacity due to the training season in professional Brazilian soccer players. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(5), Supplement abstract 890.

  11. REGULAR EXERCISE AFFECTS THE CIRCADIAN RHYTHM

    Youngstedt, S. D., Kripke, D. F., Elliott, J. A., O'Brien, P. M., & Huegel, G. O. (2001). Circadian phase-response curves for exercise and bright light. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(5), Supplement abstract 1009.

  12. HEALTH IS THREATENED IN INDOOR ARENAS WHEN HIGH DEMANDS ARE PLACED ON RESPIRATION

    Rundell, K. W., Wilber, R. L., Beck, K. C., & Anderson, S. D. (2001). Exercise-induced asthma: Are we overdiagnosing the elite athlete. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(5), Supplement abstract 1035.

  13. TRAINED PHYSICAL CAPACITIES ARE LOST OVER A FOOTBALL SEASON

    Schneider, V., Arnold, B., Martin, K., Bell, D., & Crocker, P. (1998). Detraining effects in college football players during the competitive season. Journal of Strength and Conditioning, 12, 42-45.

  14. MASTER ATHLETES' PHYSIOLOGY DECLINES SIMILARLY TO SEDENTARY INDIVIDUALS

    Hawkins, S. A., Marcell, T. J., Jaque, S. V., & Wiswell, R. A. (2001). A longitudinal assessment of change in VO2max and maximal heart rate in master athletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33, 1744-1750.

  15. HEAVY TRAINING AND DRYLAND TRAINING DEMANDS ARE NOT RELATED TO IMPROVEMENTS IN SWIMMING PERFORMANCE

    Sokolovas, G. (2000). Demographic information. In The Olympic Trials Project (Chapter 1). Colorado Springs, CO: United States Swimming. [On-line. http://www.usa-swimming.org/programs/template.pl?opt=news&pubid=941].

  16. RUNNING ECONOMY IS IMPORTANT FOR MEN BUT NOT WOMEN

    Glace, B. W., Murphy, C. A., Kremenic, I. J., & McHugh, M. P. (2002). Running economy of elite and non-elite runners. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 137.

  17. TRAINED AND UNTRAINED SUBJECTS' PHYSIOLOGIES ARE DIFFERENT

    Zhou, B., Ernst, M., & Wang, Y. T. (2002). Limiting factors for maximal oxygen consumption within male college students versus collegiate distance runners. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 621.

  18. COMPRESSION GARMENTS DO NOT INCREASE STRENGTH OR ENDURANCE

    Maitland, M. E., & Vandertuin, J. F. (2002). The effect of compression clothing on muscular strength and endurance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 963.

  19. COLLEGIATE SPORT PARTICIPATION DOES NOT IMPROVE LONG-TERM FITNESS OR PERFORMANCE

    Bracko, M. R. (2002). Effect of two season of play on Canadian female university hockey players. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1117.

  20. EXERCISE FAMILIARIZATION HAS LITTLE TO DO WITH EARLY TRAINING RESPONSES

    Ziemba, A. W., Chwalbinska-Moneta, J., Kaciuba-Uscilko, H., Kruk, B., Krezeminski, K., Cybulski, G., & Nazar, K. (2003). Early effects of short-term aerobic training. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 43, 57-63.

  21. TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY AND PHYSIOLOGY CHANGE WITH INITIAL TRAINING

    Kamel, K. S., McLean, S. P., & Sharp, R. L. (May, 2002). Biomechanical and physiological adaptation to twelve weeks of competitive swimming training. Sixth IOC World Congress on Sport Sciences, abstract, p. 74.

  22. TRIATHLETES SHOULD DRAFT IN SWIMMING SO THAT CYCLING IS BETTER

    Delextrat, A., Tricot, V., Bernard, T., Vercruyssen, F., Hausswirth, C., & Brisswalter, J. (2003). Drafting during swimming improves efficiency during subsequent cycling. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35, 1612-1619.

  23. ELITE TRIATHLETES RUN WITH BETTER EFFICIENCY THAN MIDDLE-LEVEL PERFORMERS

    Millet, G. P., Millet, G. Y., Hofmann, M. D., & Candau, R. B., (2000). Alterations in running economy and mechanics after maximal cycling in triathletes: Influence of performance level. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 21, 127-132.

  24. TRAINING IS NECESSARY TO IMPROVE IN COMPETITIONS

    Greer, N., Serfass, R., & Picconatto, W. (1992). The effects of a hockey-specific training program on performance of bantam players. Canadian Journal of Sport Science, 17, 65-69.

  25. DISTANCE RUNNERS FAVOR A HIGHER PERCENTAGE OF TYPE I FIBERS

    Myburgh, K. H., Kohn, T. A., Essen-Gustavsson, B., & Andersen, J. L. (2003). Hybrid skeletal muscle fibers in competitive runners and in recreationally active non-runners. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 534.

  26. SWIMMING TRAINING REDUCES FORCE PRODUCTION CAPACITY

    Carl, D. L., Bales, E., Haubrich, C., Kirschling, M., Milnes, C., Vernon, A., & Winquist, J. (2003). Effect of high intensity versus high volume swim training on selected measures of fatigue. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 2065.

  27. CHANGES IN CYCLING CRITICAL VELOCITY AND PEAK POWER OCCUR MOSTLY IN THE EARLY PHASES OF TRAINING

    Paton, C. D., & Hopkins, W. G. (2003). Seasonal changes in power of competitive cyclists: Implications for monitoring performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1456.

  28. LABORATORY MEASURES ARE NOT VERY SENSITIVE TO REAL PERFORMANCE CHANGES

    Garner, A. S., Martin, D. T., Gulbin, J., Doney, G. E., Jenkins, D. G., & Hahn, A. G. (2003). Laboratory and velodrome sprint cycling power in female cyclists following 6 weeks of training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1872.

    B. Organization

  29. "INJURY CAMPS" ARE COUNTER-PRODUCTIVE IN TEAM SPORTS

    Foster, C., Gottschall, L. L., Parker, S. E., Freeman, A., Brice, G., & Kline, D. (2000). Training patterns and illness/injury during a men's collegiate basketball season. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(5), Supplement abstract 1824.

  30. FOOTBALL TWO-A-DAY PRACTICES ARE DESTRUCTIVE

    Mitchell, C. R., Hutchinson, A. T., Clark, M., & Crouse, S. F. (2001). Muscle power in collegiate football athletes before and after the two-a-day practice period. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(5), Supplement abstract 892.

  31. ESTABLISH AN ENDURANCE BASE BEFORE COMMENCING STRENGTH TRAINING

    Hunter, G., Demment, R., & Miller, D. (1987). Development of strength and maximum oxygen uptake during simultaneous training for strength and endurance. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 27, 269-275.

  32. INTERVAL TRAINING IS MORE EFFECTIVE WHEN IMPOSED ON A CONTINUOUS TRAINING BASE

    Quinn, T. J., Klooster, J. R., & Kenefick, R. W. (2002). Can intermittent exercise maintain or enhance physiological benefits gained from previous traditional exercise? Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 510.

  33. MORE WORK IS POSSIBLE IN THE AFTERNOON

    Hill, D. W., Borden, D. O., Darnaby, W. M., Hendricks, D. N., & Hill, C. M. (1992). Effect of time of day on aerobic and anaerobic responses to high-intensity exercise. Canadian Journal of Sport Sciences, 17, 316-319.

  34. BETTER PERFORMANCES ARE LIKELY LATER IN THE DAY

    Sesboue, B., Bessot, N., Moussay, S., Gauthier, A., Larue, J., & Davenne, D. (2003). Diurnal variation in cycling kinematics. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 80.

  35. PERIODIZED TRAINING BETTER THAN TRADITIONAL CYCLING TRAINING

    Soungatoulin, V., Beam, W., Kersey, R., & Peterson, J. (2003). Comparative effects of traditional versus periodized intensity training on cycling performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 185.

  36. COACHES AND PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAINING ZONES

    Personal communication (1999) from Joel M Stager, Director of the Counsilman Center for Swimming Research, Department of Kinesiology, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana .

    C. Content

  37. STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE TRAINING CAN BE PERFORMED SIMULTANEOUSLY

    Sale, D. G., MacDougall, J. D., Jacobs, I., & Garner, S. (1990). Interaction between concurrent strength and endurance training. Journal of Applied Physiology, 68, 260-270.

  38. RESISTIVE INSPIRATORY MUSCLE TRAINING DOES NOT IMPROVE RUNNING PERFORMANCE

    Wongathikun, J., Williams, J. S., Boon, S. M., & Acevedo, E. O. (2001). Effects of resistive inspiratory muscle training on breathing capacity and whole-body endurance exercise capacity in trained individuals. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(5), Supplement abstract 335.

  39. MULTI-ACTIVITY TRAINING DOES NOT IMPROVE PERFORMANCE

    Hue, O., Valluet, A., Blonc, S., & Hertogh, C. (2002). Effects of multicycle-run training on triathlete performance. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 73, 289-295.

  40. POWER IS IMPROVED BY INCREASING TRAINING INTENSITY

    Laursen, P. B., Blanchard, M. A., & Jenkins, D. G. (2002). Acute high-intensity interval training improves Tvent and peak power output in highly trained males. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology, 27, 336-348.

  41. WORK EASILY AT FIRST WHEN RETRAINING

    Northius, M. E., & Veldman, J. W. (2002). Off-season training of collegiate distance runners: A comparison of three methods. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 130.

  42. COMBINED AEROBIC AND RESISTANCE TRAINING IS EFFECTIVE

    Saunders, M. J., Flohr, J. A., & Todd, M. K. (2002). A comparison of the benefits of cardioresistance training versus cardiovascular and resistance training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 147.

  43. ICE-HOCKEY GAMES STRESS THE HEART MORE THAN PRACTICES

    Rundell, K. W., Judelson, D. A., & Speiring, B. A. (2002). An evaluation of cardiovascular demands and practice specificity in women's ice hockey. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 879.

  44. ROWING PERFORMANCE INFLUENCED MORE BY TECHNIQUE THAN PHYSICAL TRAINING

    Seiler, K. S., Spirduso, W. W., & Martin, J. S. (1998). Gender differences in rowing performance and power with aging. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30, 121-127.

  45. INCLINED RUNNING AFFECTS POSTURAL STABILITY (BALANCE)

    Wade, L. R., & Weimar, W. (2003). The influence of incline sprint training on unilateral balance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1474.

  46. SIMULATED ALTITUDE TRAINING DOES NOT BENEFIT SWIMMERS

    Truijens, M. J., Palmer, D., Witkowski, S., Chase, P., van Asseldonk, E., Toussaint, H. M., & Levine, B. D. The effect of high intensity, hypoxic training on VO2 kinetics in well trained swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1861.

    SPRINT/ANAEROBIC TRAINING

  47. HIGH-INTENSITY WORK DOES NOT AFFECT SUBSEQUENT ANAEROBIC CAPACITY

    Slyter, M. S., Hodgkins, T. D., Berning, J. M., Durham, M. P., Evans, A. K., & Sinclair, D. (2000). Effects of 10 minutes of high intensity cycling on Wingate power output. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(5), Supplement abstract 537.

  48. ADDED STRENGTH TRAINING IMPROVES ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCE

    Adams, K. J., Shimp-Bowerman, J. A., Pearson, M., Berning, J. M., Seven-Adams, P. G., & Harris, C. (2000). Concurrent strength and endurance training effects on anaerobic power. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(5), Supplement abstract 540.

  49. ICE-HOCKEY PLAYERS IMPROVE SKATING POWER THROUGHOUT A SEASON

    Koener, J. R., & Hanson, T. E. (2000). Season long adaptation in power measured in male collegiate hockey players. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(5), Supplement abstract 1009.

  50. SOCCER TRAINING DOES NOT IMPROVE ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCE IN BOYS

    Al-Hazzaa, H. M., Al-Refaee, S. A., Almuzaini, K. S., Sulaiman, M. A., & Dafterdar, M. Y. (2000). Anaerobic performance of adolescents vs adults: Effect of age and soccer training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(5), Supplement abstract 1367.

  51. INCLINE TRAINING IMPROVES SPRINTING

    Walker, J. A., Frappier, J., Johnson, S. C., & Swanson, S. C. (2000). Effect of a 6-week incline treadmill training program of Wingate test results and 40-yard sprint times. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(5), Supplement abstract 1846.

  52. TREADMILL INTERVAL TRAINING HAS LIMITED USES FOR RUNNING TRAINING

    Coombes, J. S., Smith, T. P., Dilger, J., Penney, G., Davoren, B., & Geraghty, D. P. (2001). Optimising high intensity treadmill training using vVO2max and Tmax. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(5), Supplement abstract 748.

  53. TRAINING PROGRAM VARIATIONS MIGHT NOT PRODUCE BETTER RESPONSES

    Vaz, P. S., & Gomes, P. S. (2002). Effects of nine weeks of lower body anaerobic training on peak power of male adults. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 129.

  54. HIGH-INTENSITY INTERVAL TRAINING IMPROVES BOTH AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC FACTORS

    Sokmen, B., Beam, W., Witchey, R., & Adams, G. (2002). Effect of interval versus continuous training on aerobic and anaerobic variables. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 509.

  55. INTERVAL TRAINING PRODUCES DIFFERENT PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS DEPENDING UPON WORK DURATION

    Seiler, K. S., & Sjursen, J. E. (2002). Effect of work bout duration on physiological and perceptual response to interval training in runners. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1535.

  56. INTERVAL WORK BEST FOR TRAINING EFFECTS IF TIME IS RESTRICTED

    Berthoin, S., Manteca, F., Gerbeaux, M., & Lensel-Corbeil, G. (1995). Effect of a 12-week training programme on maximal aerobic speed (MAS) and running time to exhaustion at 100% of MAS for students aged 14 to 17 years. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 35, 251-256.

  57. INTERVAL TRAINING BENEFITS AEROBIC CAPACITY MORE THAN CONTINUOUS TRAINING

    Thomas, T. R., Adeniran, S. B., & Etheridge, G. L. (1984). Effects of different running programs on VO2max, percent fat, and plasma lipids. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences, 9, 55-62.

  58. IN-SEASON INTERVAL TRAINING IMPROVES SOCCER GAME PERFORMANCE

    Helgerud, J., Engen, L. C., Wisloff, U., & Hoff, J. (2001).Aerobic endurance training improves soccer performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33, 1925-1931.

  59. TETHERED SWIMMING POWER IS RELATED TO SPRINT TIMES

    Patnott, J. R., Post, K., & Northius, M. E. (2003). Muscular power changes in collegiate swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1454.

  60. SPRINT TRAINING PRODUCES EFFECTS VERY QUICKLY BEFORE OVERREACHING

    Macklin, K. J., Talanian, J. T., Peiffer, J., Parker, D. L., & Quintana, R. (2003). The effects of a 7-week sprint training program on supramaximal power indices in untrained individuals. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1623.

  61. SPRINT INTERVAL TRAINING IMPROVES INTENSE AEROBIC WORK

    Hughes, S. C., Burgomaster, K. A., Heigenhauser, G. J., & Gibala, M. J. (2003). Six bouts of sprint interval training (SIT) improves intense aerobic cycling performance and peak anaerobic power. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1875.

  62. SUPRAMAXIMAL SPRINT TRAINING IS REQUIRED TO ALTER MAXIMAL ACCUMULATED OXYGEN DEFICIT

    Zacharogiannis, E., Tziortzis, S., & Paradisis, G. (2003). Effects of continuous, interval, and speed training on anaerobic capacity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 2066.

    ENDURANCE/AEROBIC TRAINING

  63. HEAVY RESISTANCE AND HIGH INTENSITY INTERVAL TRAINING DO NOT IMPROVE AEROBIC PERFORMANCE

    Swensen, T., Obidinski, M., & Wigglesworth, J. K. (2000). Effects of resistance training or high intensity ergometer interval training on rowing performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(5), Supplement abstract 536.

  64. ADDED STRENGTH TRAINING IMPROVES AEROBIC PERFORMANCE

    Pearson, M., Adams, K. J., Shimp-Bowerman, J. A., Sevene-Adams, P. B., Harris, C., Durham, M., & Barnard, K. L. (2000). Concurrent strength and endurance training effects on aerobic power. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(5), Supplement abstract 539.

  65. AEROBIC WORK IS BENEFICIAL FOR JUNIOR SOCCER PLAYERS

    Helgerud, J., Engen, L. C., Wisloff, U., & Hoff, J. (2000). Changes in soccer performance from enhanced aerobic endurance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(5), Supplement abstract 974.

  66. AEROBIC TRAINING IN CHILDREN INFLUENCES ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCE

    Obert, P., Mandigout, M., Vinet, A., & Courteix, D. (2001). Effect of a 13-week aerobic training programme on the maximal power developed during a force-velocity test in prepubertal boys and girls. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 22, 442-446.

  67. AEROBIC CAPACITY DETERMINES AMOUNT OF RUNNING IN SOCCER

    Santos, P. J., Valente, A. P., & Soares, J. M. (2001). Aerobic capacity versus total distance covered during a game in elite soccer players. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(5), Supplement abstract 886.

  68. INSPIRATORY MUSCLE TRAINING IMPROVES AEROBIC PERFORMANCE

    Romer, L. M., McConnell, A. K., & Jones, D. A. (2002). Inspiratory muscle fatigue in trained cyclists: Effects of inspiratory muscle training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34, 785-792.

  69. BED REST AFFECTS ENDURANCE ATHLETES MORE THAN STRENGTH ATHLETES OR SEDENTARY INDIVIDUALS

    Smorawinski, J., Nazar, K., Kaciuba-Uscilko, H., Kaminska, E., Cybulski, G., Kodrzycka, A., Bicz, B., & Greenleaf, J. E. (2001). Effects of 3-day bed rest on physiological responses to graded exercise in athletes and sedentary men. Journal of Applied Physiology, 91, 249-257.

  70. VO2max IS THE BEST PREDICTOR OF RUNNING PERFORMANCE IN MASTER ATHLETES

    Wiswell, R. A., Jaque, S. V. Marcell, T. J., Hawkins, S. A., Tarpenning, K. M., Constantine, N., & Hyslop, D. M. (2000). Maximal aerobic power, lactate threshold, and running performance in master athletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32, 1165-1170.

  71. 5-d AEROBIC TRAINING CAMP PRODUCES BETTER PHYSIOLOGY AND PERFORMANCE BUT POORER PSYCHOLOGY

    Hynynen, E., Konttinen, N., & Rusko, H. K. (2002). The effects of increased training volume on heart rate variability among young endurance athletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 126.

  72. ALPINE SKIING PERFORMANCE IS ENDURANCE BASED

    Vogt, M., Jordan, K., Spring, J., & Hoppeler, H. (2003). Muscle physiology and determinants of performance in elite alpine skiers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 511.

  73. ENDURANCE TRAINING IMPROVES SPRINT RECOVERY

    Tsampoukos, A., Peyrebrune, M. C., Davies, J., & Nevill, M. E. (2003). Effects of endurance training on power output recovery and blood metabolic responses during repeated sprints. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 520.

    ULTRA-SHORT TRAINING

  74. A BETTER PROGRAMMING STRUCTURE FOR SWIMMING TRAINING

    Termin, B., & Pendergast, D. R. (2000). Training using the stroke frequency -- velocity relationship to combine biomechanical and metabolic paradigms. Journal of Swimming Research, 14, 9-17.

  75. ULTRA-SHORT TRAINING INTENSITIES SHOULD NOT EXCEED 100% VO2max FOR AEROBIC ADAPTATION

    Billat, V. L., Lawinski, J., Bocquet, V., Chassaing, P., Demarle, A., & Koralsztein, J. P. (2001). Very short (15s - 15s) interval-training around critical velocity allows middle-aged runners to maintain VO2max for 14 minutes. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 22, 201-208.

  76. SHORT WORK AND REST INTERVALS RE CONDUCIVE TO GREATER VOLUMES OF SPECIFIC WORK BEING ACCOMPLISHED

    Taylor, E. B., Parcell, A. C., Creer, A. R., Sawyer, R. D., Guthrie, M., & Eyestone, E. D. (2002). The effect of work and rest distribution on lactate production during interval training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1539.

  77. SHORTER RATHER THAN LONGER WORK INTERVALS FACILITATE MORE WORK VOLUME

    Rozenek, R., Funato, K., Junjiro, K., Hoshikawa, M., & Matsuno, A. (2003). Physiological responses to interval training at velocities associated with VO2max. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 493.

    TAPER

  78. RUNNING PERFORMANCE NOT IMPROVED BY A 6-d TAPER

    Mujika, I., Goya, A., Padilla, S., Grijalba, A., Forostiaga, E., Ibanez, J. (2000). Physiological responses to a 6-d taper in middle-distance runners: Influence of training intensity and volume. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32, 511-517.

  79. HIGH-INTENSITY LOW-VOLUME TAPER IS BEST FOR ENDURANCE ACTIVITIES

    Shepley, B. J., MacDougall, J. D., Cipriano, N., Sutton, J. R., Tarnapolsky, M. A., & Coates, G. (1992). Physiological effects of tapering in highly trained athletes. Journal of Applied Physiology, 72, 706-711.

  80. DAILY TRAINING DURING TAPER IS BEST

    Mujika, I., Goya, A., Ruiz, E., Grijalba, A., Santisteban, J., & Padilla, S. (2002). Physiological and performance responses to a 6-day taper in middle-distance runners: Influence of training frequency. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 23, 367-373.

    SUPERSLOW TRAINING

  81. SUPERSLOW TRAINING HAS NO EFFECT ON BLOOD PRESSURE

    Greer, B., Blount, P., Caterisanno, A., Karinshak, K., Shelby, D., & Valez, L. (2003). The effect of SUPERSLOW training on resting blood pressure in college-age males. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 2073.

  82. SUPERSLOW TRAINING HAS NO EFFECT ON AEROBIC FACTORS

    Caterisano, A., Blount, P., Greer, B., Fletcher, B., Farner, J., Kyrikos, D., & Stewart, P. (2003). The effect of SUPERSLOW training on aerobic capacity and body composition in college-age males. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 2074.

  83. SUPERSLOW TRAINING IMPROVES STRENGTH FACTORS

    Blount, P. J., Caterisano, A., Greer, B., Fletcher, B., Farmer, J., Stewart, P., & Norton, J. (2003). The effect of SUPERSLOW training on strength parameters in college aged males. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 2075.

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