ABSTRACTS IN THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SWIMMING

This section of the Swimming Science Journal contains abstracts of articles concerned with the psychology of swimming. As articles are located they are appended to the end of the list.

blue line

TABLE OF CONTENTS

  1. MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS IN SWIMMING

    Brodkin, P., & Weiss, M. R. (1990). Developmental differences in motivation for participating in competitive swimming. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 12, 248-263.

  2. POSITIVE THINKING IMPROVES TRAINING PERFORMANCES

    Rushall, B. S., & Shewchuk, M. L. (1989). Effects of thought content instructions on swimming performance. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 29, 327-334.

  3. PSYCHOLOGY CHANGES DURING INCREASED TRAINING

    Morgan, W. P., Costill, D. L., Flynn, M. G., Raglin, J. S., & O'Connor, P. J. (1988). Mood disturbances following increased training in swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 20, 408-414.

  4. TAIS DOES NOT PREDICT SWIMMING INJURIES

    Bond, J. W., Miller, B. P., & Chrisfield, P. M. (1988). Psychological prediction of injury in elite swimmers. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 9, 345-348.

  5. CONFLICT REDUCES MOTIVATION TO SWIM

    Volp, A., & Keil, U. (1987). The relationship between performance, intention to drop out, and intrapersonal conflict in swimmers. Journal of Sport Psychology, 9, 358-375.

  6. REVERSE TEACHING PROGRESSIONS (BACKWARD SHAPING) RAPIDLY AND PERMANENTLY ALTER TECHNIQUE FEATURES

    Sherman, C. A., & Rushall, B. S. (1993). Improving swimming stroke using reverse teaching: a case study. In W. K. Simpson, A. LeUnes, & J. S. Picou, (Eds.). Applied Research in Coaching and Athletics Annual 1993. Boston: American Press.

  7. PERCEPTION OF EFFORT IN SWIMMING IS DIFFERENT BETWEEN GENDERS

    Koltyn, K. F., O'Connor, P. J., & Morgan, W. P. (1991). Perception of effort in female and male competitive swimmers. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 12, 427-429.

  8. PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF OLYMPIC SWIMMERS

    Rushall, B. S., Jamieson, J., & Talbot, D. (1976). Psychological characteristics of Canadian Olympic Games swimmers. Unpublished research report, Canadian Amateur Swimming Association, Gloucester, Ontario, Canada.

  9. FEMALES NEED TO BE COACHED DIFFERENTLY TO MEN

    Rushall, B. S. (1994). Some psychological considerations for US National Swimming Teams. American Swimming, February-March, 8-12.

  10. DIRECTED THOUGHTS IMPROVE TRAINING PERFORMANCES IN AGE-GROUP SWIMMERS

    Sewell, D. F. (1996). Attention-focusing instructions and training times in competitive youth swimmers. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 83, 915-920.

  11. POMS CONFIRMS SOME OVERTRAINED SWIMMERS

    Raglin, J. S., & Morgan, W. P. (1994). Development of a scale for use in monitoring training-induced distress in athletes. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 15, 84-88.

  12. AGE OF LEARNING TO SWIM IS MOST IMPORTANT FACTOR

    Mael, F. A. (1995). Staying afloat: Within-group swimming proficiency for whites and blacks. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80, 479-480.

  13. ANXIETY IS ASSOCIATED WITH SLOWER SWIMMING

    Burton, D. (1988). Do anxious swimmers swim slower? Reexamining the elusive anxiety-performance relationship. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 10, 45-61.

  14. PARTICIPATION IN COMPETITIVE SWIMMING IMPROVES SELF-ESTEEM

    Sonstroem, R. J., Harlow, L. L., & Salisbury, K. S. (1993). Path analysis of a self-esteem model across a competitive swim season. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 64, 335-342.

  15. HARD TRAINING PRODUCES A GLOOMY MOOD

    Berger, B. G., Grove, J. R., Prapavessis, H., & Butki, B. D. (1997). Relationship of swimming distance, expectancy, and performance to mood states of competitive athletes. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 84, 1199-1210.

  16. FEMALE SWIMMERS USE FEW MENTAL SKILLS

    Huddleston, S., & Thiese, K. (1999). The use of psychological skills by female collegiate swimmers. Journal of Sport Behavior, 22, 602-610.

  17. PRERACE PSYCHOLOGY MUST BE POSITIVE AND FACILITATIVE

    Hanton, S., & Jones, G. (1999). The acquisition and development of cognitive skills and strategies: I. Making the butterflies fly in formation. The Sport Psychologist, 13, 1-21.

  18. COMPETITIVE ANXIETY CAN BE FACILITATIVE FOR PERFORMANCE

    Jones, G., & Hanton, S. (1996). Interpretation of competitive anxiety symptoms and goal attainment expectancies. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 18, 144-157.

  19. THEORIES OF EXCITATION ARE NOT RELATED IN SWIMMERS

    Davis, J. E., & Cox, R. H. (2000). Interpreting direction of anxiety within Hanin's Individual Zone of Optimal Functioning. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(5), Supplement abstract 407.

  20. POSITIVE CONFIDENCE AT TRAINING AND COMPETITIONS IS RELATED TO GOOD PERFORMANCES

    Psychountaki, M., & Zervas, Y. (2000). Competitive worries, sport confidence, and performance ratings for young swimmers. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 91, 87-94.

  21. STRESS IS INCREASED WHEN SWIMMING AND STUDY ARE MIXED

    Carl, D. L., Tyree, B., & Strasser, S. (2001). Effect of environment and training on mood states of competitive swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(5), Supplement abstract 1252.

  22. FEMALE AGE-GROUP SWIMMERS KNOW LITTLE ABOUT NUTRITION AND DIET CONTROL

    Henriquez, M. M., George, V. A., & Castellanos, V. H. (2001). Eating attitudes and weight control behaviors of adolescent female swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(5), Supplement abstract 1603.

  23. ANXIETY FORMS NOT RELATED TO HIGH SCHOOL SWIMMING PERFORMANCES

    Davis, J. E., & Cox, R. H. (2002). Interpreting direction of anxiety within Hanin's individual zone of optimal functioning. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 14, 43-52.

  24. HIGH SELF-CONFIDENCE CONTROLS PRECOMPETITION ANXIETY

    Hanton, S., & Connaughton, D. (2002). Perceived control of anxiety and its relationship to self-confidence and performance. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 73, 87-97.

  25. FEMALE SWIMMERS ARE PSYCHOLOGICALLY DIFFERENT TO MALE SWIMMERS

    Tobar, D. A., & Morgan, W. P. (2002). Gender, trait anxiety and mood state responses to overtraining in college swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 905.

  26. AGE-GROUPERS' MOOD WORSENS AS TRAINING LOAD INCREASES

    Snook, E. M., Jerome, G. J., & Petruzzello, S. J. (2002). Mood changes over a training season in age group swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1114.

  27. ANXIETY FORMS NOT RELATED TO HIGH SCHOOL SWIMMING PERFORMANCES

    Davis, J. E., & Cox, R. H. (2002). Interpreting direction of anxiety within Hanin's individual zone of optimal functioning. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 14, 43-52.

  28. PSYCHOLOGICAL MEASURES ARE MORE SENSITIVE THAN PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASURES TO OVERTRAINING

    Lemyre, P.-N., Stray-Gundersen, J., Treasure, D. C., Matt, K., & Roberts, G. (2004). Physiological and psychological markers of overtraining and burnout in elite swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 1024.

  29. A NOTABLE PROPORTION OF HIGH SCHOOL FEMALE ATHLETES DISPLAY EATING DISORDERS

    Nicholls, J. F., Rauh, M. J., Lawson, M., Pernick, Y., & Hoskinson, M. (2004). The prevalence of disordered eating among adolescent female athletes in four high school sports. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 259.

  30. SWIMMERS DROP OUT OF SWIMMING FOR A VARIETY OF REASONS

    Salguero, A. (2003). Identification of dropout reasons in young competitive swimmers. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 43, 530-534.

  31. GENDER AND TRAIT ANXIETY ARE RELATED TO OVERTRAINING AND TAPER

    Tobar, D. A., & Morgan, W. P. (2005). Gender, trait anxiety, and perceptual response of college swimmers during overtraining and taper. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37(5), Supplement abstract 940.

  32. ANXIETY IS NOT AS INFLUENTIAL AS OFTEN THOUGHT

    Lundqvist, C., Kentta, G., & Raglin, J. S. (2006). Elite junior national skiers and swimmers do not report facilitative precompetition anxiety responses. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1745.

  33. SWIMMERS' SELF-REGULATION A KEY TO TRAINING SUCCESS

    Young, B. W., & Starkes, J. L. (2006). Coaches’ perceptions of non-regulated training behaviors in competitive swimmers. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 1, 53-68.

  34. PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS BREAK DOWN FIRST WHEN TRAINING IS EXCESSIVE

    Lovorn, J. L., Bartholomew, J., & McLean, S. P. (2006). Effect of overtraining on psychology, physiology, and biomechanics of collegiate swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1547.

  35. PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS EMERGE FIRST AS THE REACTION TO EXCESSIVE TRAINING

    Kamell, K. S., Ekkekakis, P., & Sharp, R. L. (2006). Salivary cortisol and affective changes during a swimming training program. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1549.

  36. SELF-REPORTS OF PRACTICE COMPLIANCE ARE UNRELIABLE

    Young, B. W., & Starkes, J. L. (2006). Measuring outcomes of swimmers' non-regulation during practice: Relationships between self-report, coaches' judgments, and video-observation. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 1, 131-148.

  37. MINIMAL CARBOHYDRATE SUPPLEMENTATION DOES NOT CHANGE SWIMMERS' AFFECTIVE STATES

    Hill, K. M., Whitehad, J. R., Brinkert, R. H., & Goodwin, J. (2008). The effects of a carbohydrate supplement on affect in college swimmers during intensive training. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis, Presentation Number 853.

  38. SIMPLIFY LEARNING TO SWIM AT A VERY EARLY AGE

    King, A. M., & Kruisselbrink, D. (2009). Effect of breath retention on the development of swimming skills in preschool children. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. Presentation Number 2554.

  39. AGE-GROUP SWIMMERS MODIFY DIVE SKILLS SIMILARLY WHEN INSTRUCTED

    Cornett, A. C., White, J. C., & Stager, J. M. (2009). Ability of competitive swimmers to modify start depth is not dependent upon age. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. Presentation Number 2779.

  40. LEARNING BUTTERFLY STROKE HAS SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN GENDERS

    Michielon, G., Scurati, R., Longo, S., & Invernizzi, P. L. (2009). Gender and learning the butterfly stroke technique. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

  41. RELAY EXCHANGE PRACTICE PRODUCES IMPROVEMENTS IN PERFORMANCE

    Kibele, A., & Fischer, S. (2010). Relay start strategies in elite swimmers. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  42. POSITIVE CONSTRUCTIVE COACHING IS BEST

    Rustad, B. E., & Lemyre, P. N. (2010). A social-cognitive investigation of the coach-created motivational climate and coaching behavior in Norwegian youth swimming. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  43. PERCEIVED EXERTION IS SENSITIVE TO 5% CHANGES IN SWIMMING CRITICAL VELOCITY

    Castro, F., Franken, M., & Diefenthaeler, F. (2010). Perceived exertion at different percents of the critical velocity in front crawl. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  44. SOCIAL INFLUENCES ARE MORE MOTIVATIONAL THAN A COACH IN DEVELOPING SWIMMERS

    Chan, D. K., Lonsdale, C., & Fung, H. H. (2011). Influences of coaches, parents, and peers on the motivational patterns of child and adolescent athletes. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 21, 1-11.

  45. MUSIC STIMULATES IMPROVED SWIMMING

    Karageorghis, C. I., Hutchinson, J. S., Jones, L., Farmer, H. Al, Ayhan, M. S., Wilson, R. C., Rance, J., Hepworth, C. J., & Bailey, S. G. (2013). Psychological, psychophysical, and ergogenic effects of music in swimming. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 45(5), Supplement abstract number 1243.

Return to Swimming Science Journal Main Page.

blue line