POSITIVE CONSTRUCTIVE COACHING IS BEST
Rustad, B. E., & Lemyre, P. N. (2010). A social-cognitive investigation of the coach-created motivational climate and coaching behavior in Norwegian youth swimming. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.
This investigation examined how Norwegian swimmers perceived their coaches’ behaviors and the corresponding motivational climates, and how these influenced a range of well-being parameters (e.g., burnout, vitality, and positive/negative affect). Male and female Norwegian swimmers (N = 202; ages 14 – 24 years) completed a battery of questionnaires (e.g., Motivational Climate Scale for Youth Sports, CBAS-PBS, Athlete Burnout Questionnaire, Subjective Vitality Scale, and the PANAS). A canonical correlation analysis determined the multivariate association between the two sets of variables. The perceived motivational climate was the predictor variable. Swimmers’ perceptions of coaching behavior and a range of well-being parameters (e.g., burnout, vitality, and positive and negative affect) were the criterion variables.
The multivariate relationship was significant. The canonical function emerged with a Rc = .70 (49 % common variance) and a redundancy index of 30. Swimmers who perceived coaching behaviors that emphasized positive reinforcement, mistake-contingent encouragement, corrective instruction given in a positive and encouraging fashion, and proper technical instruction perceived a mastery climate. In contrast, coaching behaviors that emphasized punitive technical instruction were positively correlated with an ego climate. However, perception of a mastery climate was also positively correlated with coaching behaviors that emphasized non-reinforcement, punishment, and ignoring mistakes. Further, findings indicated that there was a positive relationship between an ego climate and the three dimensions of burnout. Also found was a positive relationship between a mastery climate, vitality, and positive effect.
Implication. All coaches should strive to create a mastery climate in youth sports that promotes athletes’ well-being and optimizes their achievement motivation.
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