Young, B. W., & Starkes, J. L. (2006). Measuring outcomes of swimmers' non-regulation during practice: Relationships between self-report, coaches' judgments, and video-observation. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 1, 131-148.

Video-observations were made of swimmer's (N = 33) behaviors at nine practices. Actions that displayed reduced or incorrect participation were observed. Self-reports of the same classes of behaviors were obtained after each practice.

For both high and low achievers, self-reports of practice behaviors and coach's-program compliance were inaccurate and/or biased.

Implication. Self-reports of completed-practice behaviors are unreliable. To understand fully practice behaviors, more objective measures (e.g., video observations) need to be conducted. [Generalizing from these results would be tenuous at best. It is but one observation. The results may be typical or peculiar to this one coach/environment/set of swimmers.]

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