ABSTRACTS IN THE BIOMECHANICS OF SWIMMING

This section of the Swimming Science Journal contains abstracts of articles concerned with biomechanics of swimming. As articles are located their abstracts are appended to the end of the list.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

  1. DRAG FORCES ARE LARGE IN CRAWL STROKE PROPULSION

    Wood, T. C. (1988). A fluid dynamic analysis of the propulsive potential of the hand and forearm in swimming. In J. Terauds & W. Bedingfield (Eds.), International series on sport sciences, SWIMMING III, Vol. 8. Baltimore: University Park Press.

  2. SWIMMING EFFICIENCY IS VELOCITY DEPENDENT

    Toussaint, H. M., Knops, W., De Groot, G., & Hollander, A. P. (1990). The mechanical efficiency of front crawl swimming. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 22, 402-408.

  3. PHYSIOLOGY AND SKILLS DIFFERENTIATE SWIMMING PERFORMANCE LEVELS

    Chatard, J. C., Collomp, C., Maglischo, E., & Maglischo, C. (1990). Swimming skill and stroking characteristics of front crawl swimmers. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 11, 156-161.

  4. LONG LIMBS AND BIG HANDS AND FEET ARE AN ADVANTAGE IN SWIMMING

    Grimston, S. K., & Hay, J. G. (1986). Relationships among anthropometric and stroking characteristics of college swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 18, 60-68.

  5. STROKE RATE AND LENGTH

    Kennedy, P., Brown, P., Chengalur, S. N., & Nelson, R. C. (1990). Analysis of male and female Olympic swimmers in the 100-meter events. International Journal of Sport Biomechanics, 6, 187-197.

  6. PULL WIDE IN RELATION TO THE TORSO

    Higgs, S. L., & Gallagher, H. (1979). The effect of arm position on strength of pull in freestyle and backstroke. Swimming Technique, 16, 24-27.

  7. FREELY CHOSEN STROKE RATES ARE BEST

    Swaine, I., & Reilly, T. (1983). The freely-chosen swimming stroke rate in a maximal swim on a biokinetic swim bench. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 15, 370-375.

  8. STROKE DISTANCE IS IMPORTANT

    Toussaint, H. M. (1988). Differences in propelling efficiency between competitive and triathlon swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 22, 409-415.

  9. STEP START HAS ADVANTAGES OVER CONVENTIONAL START

    Gambrel, D. W., Blanke, D., Thigpen, K., & Mellion, M. B. (1991). A biomechanical comparison of two relay starts in swimming. Journal of Swimming Research, 7, 5-9.

  10. BEND ARMS TOO MUCH RATHER THAN TOO LITTLE IN PROPULSION

    Rouard, A. H., & Billat, R. P. (1990). Influences of sex and level of performance on freestyle stroke: an electromyography and kinematic study. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 11, 150-155.

  11. CHILDREN LESS POWERFUL THAN ADULTS

    Vandewalle, H., Peres, G., Sourabie, B., Stouvenal, O., & Monod, H. (1989). Force-velocity relationship and maximal aerobic power during cranking exercise in young swimmers. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 10, 439-445.

  12. FEMALES USE BETTER TECHNIQUE

    Cappaert, J. M., Kolmogorov, S., Walker, J., Skinner, J., Rodriguez, F., & Gordon, B. J. (1996). Active drag measurements in elite US swimmers. Medicine and Science in Exercise and Sports, 28(5), Supplement abstract 279.

  13. STROKE ENTRIES ARE THE MAJOR CAUSE OF SHOULDER INJURIES

    Yanai, T., & Hay, J. G. (1996). The mechanics of shoulder impingement in front-crawl swimming. Medicine and Science in Exercise and Sports, 28(5), Supplement abstract 1092.

  14. STROKE RATES AT TRAINING ARE NOT RACE-SPECIFIC

    Craig, A. B., Jr., & Pendergast, D. R. (1979). Relationships of stroke rate, distance per stroke, and velocity in competitive swimming. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 11, 278-283.

  15. SLOW KICKING DOES NOT TRAIN ANYTHING BUT IT PROVIDES VALUABLE RECOVERY

    Mookerjee, S., Bibi, K. W., Kenney, G. A., & Cohen, L. (1995). Relationship between isokinetic strength, flexibility, and flutter kicking speed in female collegiate swimmers. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 9(2), 71-74.

  16. SHOULDERS AND HIPS ROLL TOGETHER IN CRAWL STROKE

    Keppenham, B. C., & Yanai, T. (1995). Limb motions and body roll in skilled and unskilled front crawl swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 27(5), Supplement abstract 1299.

  17. FEMALES EMPHASIZE TECHNIQUE

    Dutto, D. J., & Cappaert, J. M. (1994). Biomechanical and physiological differences between males and females during freestyle swimming. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 26(5), Supplement abstract 1098.

  18. EXCESSIVE USE OF INTERNAL ROTATORS LEADS TO SHOULDER PROBLEMS

    Ruwe, P A., Pink, M., Jobe, F. W., Perry, J., & Scovazzo, M. L. (1994). The normal and the painful shoulders during the breaststroke. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 22, 789-796.

  19. HOW MODELING SWIMMING MOVEMENTS CAN LEAD TO DUBIOUS CONCLUSIONS

    Payton, C. J., & Mullineaux, D. R. (1996). Effect of body roll on hand velocity in freestyle swimming. In J. P. Troup, A. P. Hollander, D. Strasse, S. W. Trappe, J. M. Cappaert, & T. A. Trappe (Eds.), Biomechanics and medicine in swimming VII (pp. 59-63). London: E & FN Spon.

  20. SWIMMER'S SHOULDER FIRST EMERGES IN EXCESSIVE FATIGUE

    Stocker, D., Pink, M., & Jobe, F. W. (1996). Comparison of shoulder injury in collegiate and masters level swimmers. In J. P. Troup, A. P. Hollander, D. Strasse, S. W. Trappe, J. M. Cappaert, & T. A. Trappe (Eds.), Biomechanics and medicine in swimming VII (pp. 90-95). London: E & FN Spon.

  21. SHOULDER MUSCLE USE IN CRAWL STROKE DIFFERS BETWEEN EACH SWIMMER

    Monteil, K. M., Rouard, A. H., Dufour, A.B., Cappaert, J. M., & Troup, J. P. (1996). Swimmers' shoulder: EMG of the rotators during a flume test. In J. P. Troup, A. P. Hollander, D. Strasse, S. W. Trappe, J. M. Cappaert, & T. A. Trappe (Eds.), Biomechanics and medicine in swimming VII (pp. 83-89). London: E & FN Spon.

  22. CONSISTENT STROKE LENGTH IS A FEATURE OF BETTER 100-m SWIMMERS

    Chollet, D., Pelayo, P., Delaplace, C., Tourny, C., & Sidney, M. (1997). Stroking characteristic variations in the 100-m freestyle for males of differing skill. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 85, 167-177.

  23. EVEN WHEN LIFT IS PROPOSED AS BEING THE MAJOR PROPULSIVE FORCES IN THEORETICAL MODELS ITS CONTRIBUTION IS NOT VALIDATED

    Berger, M. A., Hollander, A. P., & de Groot, G. (1997). Technique and energy losses in front crawl swimming. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29, 1491-1498.

  24. POOL LENGTH ALTERS SWIMMING SKILLS AND PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTORS

    Keskinen, K. L., Keskinen, O. P., & Mero, A. (1996). Effects of pool length on biomechanical performance in front crawl swimming. In J. P. Troup, A. P. Hollander, D. Strasse, S. W. Trappe, J. M. Cappaert, & T. A. Trappe (Eds.), Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming VII (pp. 216-220). London: E & FN Spon.

  25. AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC TECHNIQUES ARE DIFFERENT

    Wakayoshi, K., D'Acquisto, J. D., Cappaert, J. M., & Troup, J. P. (1996). Relationship between metabolic parameters and stroking technique characteristics in front crawl. In J. P. Troup, A. P. Hollander, D. Strasse, S. W. Trappe, J. M. Cappaert, & T. A. Trappe (Eds.), Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming VII (pp. 152-158). London: E & FN Spon.

  26. CHAMPIONS AND NON-CHAMPIONS DIFFER IN TECHNIQUE MECHANICS

    Cappaert, J. M., Pease, D. L., & Troup, J. P. (1996). Biomechanical highlights of world champion swimmers. In J. P. Troup, A. P. Hollander, D. Strasse, S. W. Trappe, J. M. Cappaert, & T. A. Trappe (Eds.), Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming VII (pp. 76-80). London: E & FN Spon.

  27. HYPERMOBILE JOINTS AND POOR TECHNIQUE CAUSE MOST INJURIES IN SWIMMERS

    Kenal, K. A., & Knapp, L. D. (1996). Rehabilitation of injuries in competitive swimmers. Sports Medicine, 22, 337-347.

  28. TECHNIQUE ITEMS FROM THE VIII INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM OF BIOMECHANICS AND MEDICINE IN SWIMMING

    Stewart, A., & Kagaki, H. (1998). Making a splash. Sportscience News, September-October. [http://www.sportsci.org/].

  29. STROKE LENGTH FACTORS DIFFER BETWEEN MALES AND FEMALES

    Cappaert, J. M., & Gordon, B. J. (1998). Technique variables of elite level freestyle swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30(5), Supplement abstract 156.

  30. DISTANCE PER STROKE AND vVO2max HAVE LOW RELATIONSHIPS WITH 50 AND 500-YARD SWIMMING PERFORMANCES

    Nagle, E. F., Robertson, R. J., Zoeller, R. F., Moyna, N. M., & Goss, F. L. (1998). Prediction of swimming performance times using a mixed model of physiological and stroke variables. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30(5), Supplement abstract 279.

  31. SPRINT CRAWL KICK FACILITATES ARM PROPULSION WHILE NOT BEING ACTUALLY PROPULSIVE

    Deschodt, V. J. (1999). Relative contribution of arms and legs in humans to propulsion in 25-m sprint front-crawl swimming. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 80, 192-199.

  32. TRACK START IS SUPERIOR TO THE GRAB START

    Juergens, C. A., Rose, D. J., Smith, G. A., & Calder, C. A. (1999). A kinetic and kinematic comparison of the grab and track starts in competitive swimming. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31(5), Supplement abstract 616.

  33. KICKING IS NOT A SIGNIFICANT SOURCE OF PROPULSION

    Brooks, R. W., Lance, C. C. & Sawhill, J. A. (2000). The biomechanical interaction of lift and propulsion forces during swimming. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(5), Supplement abstract 910.

  34. SOME RELAY START FORMS ARE BETTER THAN OTHERS

    McLean, S. P., Vint, P. F., Beckett, K. D., Hinrichs, R. N., & Holthe, M. J. (2000). Kinematics of step-through swimming starts. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(5), Supplement abstract 911.

  35. INDEX OF CO-ORDINATION – A MEASURE OF CRAWL STROKE TIMING

    Chollet, D., Chalies, S., & Chatard, J. C. (2000). A new index of co-ordination for the crawl: Description and usefulness. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 21, 54-59.

  36. RESTRICTING STEP LENGTH IN RELAY STARTS AFFECTS PERFORMANCE

    Holthe, M. J., & McLean, S. P. (2000). Effect of step-length in the step-through swimming relay start. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(5), Supplement abstract 1049.

  37. ENTRY ANGLE AFFECTS RELAY STARTS BUT TYPE OF START DOES NOT

    Kovi, D. L., Martens, D. W., & Morin, G. E. (2000). The swimming relay start: A kinematic comparison of two techniques. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(5), Supplement abstract 1051.

  38. SHOULDER STRENGTH ASSOCIATED WITH SPRINT SWIMMING

    Hsu, K. M., & Tsu, T. G. (2000). The relationships among shoulder isokinetic strength, swimming speed, and propulsive power in front crawl swimming. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(5), Supplement abstract 1766.

  39. FREESTYLE STROKES VARY DEPENDING UPON ARM AND STROKE LENGTH

    Brooks, R. W., Lane, C. C., & Rix, J. D. (2001). The interrelationship of force-velocity dynamics and propulsion impulse in freestyle swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(5), Supplement abstract 574.

  40. NO PLACE FOR CATCH-UP CRAWL PATTERNS IN ELITE SWIMMING

    Millet, G. P., Chollet, D., Chalies, S., & Chatard, J. C. (2002). Coordination in front crawl in elite triathletes and elite swimmers. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 23, 99-104.

  41. PROPELLING EFFICIENCY IS MOST IMPORTANT FOR SWIMMING

    D'Acquisto, L. J., & Berry, J. E. (2003). Relationship between estimated propelling efficiency, peak aerobic power, and swimming performance in trained male swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 193.

  42. ENERGY DEMANDS OF EACH COMPETITIVE SWIMMING STROKE DIFFER

    White, J. C., & Stager, J. McC. (2004). The relationship between drag forces and velocity for the four competitive swimming strokes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 93.

  43. BETTER SWIMMERS HAVE MORE EFFICIENT TECHNIQUES

    D'Acquisto, L. J., Berry, J., Boggs, G., & Mattern, P. (2004). Swimming performance and velocity at OBLA are linked to propelling efficiency. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 1409.

  44. BETTER KICKING AND LESS SLOWING ARE NEEDED TO IMPROVE BREASTSTROKE SWIMMING

    Yoshimura, Y., Tanaka, T., Oishi, K., Yasukawa, M., & Funato, K. (2005). Breaststroke skills in male elite swimmers detected by means of a speed meter. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37(5), Supplement abstract 422.

  45. PULL FIRST WITH THE DEEP ARM WHEN COMING OUT OF A TURN

    Larsen, B., & Hinrichs, R. N. (2005). Transition from the glide phase to free swimming following a freestyle flip turn: Which arm pulls first? Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37(5), Supplement abstract 609.

  46. DIVE SHALLOW FOR 50-M EVENTS

    Wright, B. V., White, J. C., Parry, T. E., Willmott, A. P., Nelson, C. S., Cornett, A. C., & Stager, J. M. (2005). Maximum hand, head, knee, and toe depths during the competitive swimming start differ with race distance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37(5), Supplement abstract 624.

  47. KICKING EFFECTIVENESS IS DETERMINED BY HIP AND KNEE ACTIONS

    Mookerjee, S., & Weller, B. R. (2006). Lower extremity isokinetic strength and flexibility impacts flutter kicking performance in swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1616.

  48. END OF BUTTERFLY STROKE IS CRITICAL FOR GOOD BUTTERFLY SWIMMING

    Yoshimura, Y., Tanaka, T., Oishi, K., Yasukawa, M., & Matsuo, A. (2007). Characteristics of butterfly stroking skill in elite swimmers detected by means of a speed meter. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number 1432.

  49. PATTERNS OF FORCE APPLICATION IN CRAWL STROKING DIFFER BUT THE RESULTS OF THIS STUDY NEED TO BE INTERPRETED CAUTIOUSLY

    Seifert, L., Chollet, D., & Rouard, A. (2007). Swimming constraints and arm coordination. Human Movement Science, 26, 68-86.

  50. SPRINT RACE TECHNIQUES CHANGE AS THE EVENT PROGRESSES

    Siefert, L., Chollet, D., & Chatard, J. C. (2007). Changes during a 100-m front crawl: Effects of performance level and gender. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 39, 1784-1793.

  51. A BREATHING APPARATUS CAUSES CHANGES IN CRAWL STROKE TECHNIQUE

    Strumbelj, B. (2007). Breathing frequency patterns during submaximal and maximal front crawl swim with and without a respiratory valve. Kinesiology, 39, 165-171.

  52. A DOLPHIN KICK ENHANCES THE BREASTSTROKE PULLOUT

    McLean, S. P., Havriluk, R., & Brandt, S. (2008). Effect of adding a dolphin kick to a breaststroke pullout. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis, Presentation Number 2098.

  53. BREATHING IS DISRUPTIVE IN FREESTYLE

    Lee, J., Mellifont, R., Winstanley, J., & Burkett, B. (2008). Body roll in simulated freestyle swimming. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 29, 569-573.

  54. CATCH-UP STROKING SHOULD BE CONSIDERED A TECHNIQUE ERROR

    Schnitzle, C., Seifert, L., Ernwein, V., & Chollet, D. (2008). Arm coordination adaptations assessment in swimming. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 29, 480-487.

  55. SIDE GRIP BETTER THAN FRONT GRIP FOR STARTS

    Hinrichs, R. N., Vint, P. F., McLean, S. P., Riewald, S. A., & Mason, R. K. (2009). Comparison of swim starts using side handle and front handle grip techniques. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. Presentation Number 2556.

  56. STROKE RATE INCREASES ARE ASSOCIATED WITH SHORTENED DURATION OF THE UNDERWATER PROPULSIVE PHASE (I.E., GREATER ACCELERATION)

    Barden, J. M., Kell, R. T., & Kobsar, D. (2009). Intra-cyclic stroke parameter changes associated with increased speed in competitive front-crawl swimming. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. Presentation Number 2571.

  57. VIDEO ANALYSIS HAS DIFFICULTIES WHEN RECONSTRUCTING IMAGES

    Reis, A., Reis, V. M., Silva, A. J., Figueira, B., Louro, H., Marinho, D. A., & Barbosa, T. M. (2009). Comparison of 2d kinematical images reconstruction in breaststroke swimming: Dual media versus separated recording plans. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. Presentation Number 2763.

  58. SLIGHTLY SPREAD FINGERS ON A HAND HELD AT 90º TO THE LINE OF INTENDED FORCE PRODUCTION PRODUCES THE MOST FORCE

    Marinho, D. A., Barbosa, T. M., Reis, V. M., Vilas-Boas, J. P., Alves, F. B., Kjendlie, P. L., Rouboa, A. I., & Silva, A. J. (2009). The effect of finger spread on the propulsive force production in swimming. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. Presentation Number 599.

  59. HIGHER PROGRESSION VELOCITY WITHIN THE BREASTSTROKE CYCLE IS A FEATURE OF ELITE SPECIALIST SWIMMERS

    Leblanc, H., Seifert, L., Tourny-Chollet, C., & Chollet, D. (2007). Intra-cyclic distance per stroke phase, velocity fluctuations and acceleration time ratio of a breaststroker's hip: a comparison between elite and non-elite swimmers at different race paces. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 28(2), 140-147.

  60. BUTTERFLY MIGHT NEED TO ALWAYS BE SWUM AT RACE PACE AT PRACTICE

    Chollet, D., Seifert, L., Boulesteix, L., & Carter, M. (2006). Arm to leg coordination in elite butterfly swimmers. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 27(4), 322-329.

  61. NON-PROPULSIVE PHASE IS THE WEAK SPOT IN BREASTSTROKE SWIMMING

    Takagi, H., Sugimoto, S., Nishijima, N., & Wilson, B. (2004). Differences in stroke phases, arm-leg coordination and velocity fluctuation due to event, gender and performance level in breaststroke. Sports Biomechanics, 3, 15-27.

  62. STROKE RATE IS POSSIBLY MORE IMPORTANT THAN STROKE LENGTH

    Huot-Marchand, F., Nesi, X., Sidney, M., Alberty, M., & Pelayo, P. (2005). Variations of stroking parameters associated with 200 m competitive performance improvement in top-standard front crawl swimmers. Sports Biomechanics, 4, 89-99.

  63. TECHNIQUE CONTRIBUTES MORE TO PERFORMANCE THAN DOES STRENGTH

    Havriluk, R. (2010). Performance level differences in swimming: Relative contributions of strength and technique. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  64. THE HAND-FOREARM SHOULD BE VERTICAL IN PROPULSION

    Keys, M., Lyttle, A., Cheng, L., & Blanksby, B. A. (2010). Wave formation as a possible mechanism of propulsion in the freestyle stroke. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16-19, 2010.

  65. RIGHT AND LEFT SIDE MOVEMENTS DIFFER IN COMPETITIVE SWIMMERS

    Riemann, B. L., Witt, J., & Davies, G. J. (2010). Glenohumeral joint rotation range of motion in competitive swimmers. Presentation 1844 at the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; June 2-5.

  66. NEGATIVE ANGLE BODY POSITION IS BEST WHEN SWIMMING UNDERWATER

    Pease, D., & Vennell, R. (2010). The effect of angle of attack and depth on passive drag. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  67. DRAG REDUCTION AND FORCE PRODUCTION SHOULD BE EMPHASIZED IN THE BREASTSTROKE UNDERWATER STROKE

    Costa, L., Ribeiro, J., Figueiredo, P., Fernandes, R. J., Marinho, D., Silva, A. J., Rouboa, A., Vilas-Boas, J. P., & Machado, L. (2010). Hydrodynamic characterization of the first and second glide positions of the underwater stroke technique in breaststroke. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  68. THE LAST PHASE OF THE CRAWL STROKE IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN THE FIRST PHASE (THE “FRONT QUADRANT”)

    Formosa, D. P., Mason, B. R., & Burkett, B J. (2010). Measuring active drag within the different phases of front crawl swimming. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  69. BREASTSTROKE SWIMMERS ALTER TECHNIQUE AS A 100-m RACE PROGRESSES

    Oxford, S. W., James, R., Price, M., & Payton, C. (2010). Coordination changes during a maximal effort 100 m short-course breaststroke swim. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  70. A SPEED METER INDICATES DIFFERENCES IN SWIMMERS' SKILL LEVELS

    Tanaka, T., Yoshimura, Y., Yasukawa, M., & Oishi, K. (2009). Skill differences of freestyle competitive swimmers detected by means of a speed meter. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

  71. CATCH-UP STROKING IS ASSOCIATED WITH SLOW SWIMMING

    Fernandes, R. J., Morais, P., Keskinen, K. L., Seifert, L., Chollet, D., & Vilas-Boas, J. P. (2010). Relationship between arm coordination and energy-cost in front crawl swimming. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  72. CRAWL-STROKE DRILLS HAVE AT LEAST ONE THING IN COMMON WITH FREE SWIMMING

    Arellano, R., Dominguez-Castells, R., & Perez-Infantes, E. (2010). Effect of stroke drills on intra-cycle hip velocity in front crawl. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  73. PERFORMANCES ACROSS THE VARIOUS STROKES ARE INTERRELATED IN YOUNG FEMALE SWIMMERS

    Scurati, R., Michielon, G., Longo, S., & Invernizzi, P. L. (2009). Technical-coordinative skills and performance: Improvements and correlations in swimming. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

  74. SLIGHTLY SPREAD FINGERS AND VARIED THUMB POSITIONS BEST FOR THE HANDS

    Marinho, D. A., Barbosa, T. M., Kjendlie, P. L., Reis, V. M., Vilas-Boas, J. P., Machado, L., Rouboa, A. I., & Silva, A. J. (2010). Computational fluid dynamics applied competitive swimming: The role of finger position. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  75. BACK-PLATE STARTING PLATFORM HAS ADVANTAGES OVER THE CONVENTIONAL PLATFORM

    Nomura, T., Takeda, T., & Takagi, H. (2010). Influences of the back plate on competitive swimming starting motion in particular projection skill. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  76. KICK START ON THE OSB11 BLOCK IS FASTER THAN THE CONVENTIONAL TRACK START

    Honda, K. E., Sinclair, P. J., Mason, B. R., & Pease, D. L. (2010). A biomechanical comparison of elite swimmers' start performance using the traditional track start and the new kick start. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  77. NO-STEP STARTS ARE BEST IN UNSKILLED SWIMMERS FOR RELAYS

    Takeda, T., Takagi, H., & Tsubakimoto, S. (2010). Comparison among three types of relay start in competitive swimming. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  78. DIFFERENT STARTS ARE POSSIBLE FOR ADAPTATION TO INDIVIDUAL SWIMMERS' PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS

    Vantorre, J., Seifert, L., Bideau, B., Nicolas, G., Fernandes, R. J., Vilas-Boas, J. P., & Chollet, D. (2010). Influence of swimming start styles on biomechanics and angular momentum. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  79. CHANGING A START-DIVE ELEMENT DOES NOT NECESSARILY IMPROVE A START BUT PRACTICE DOES

    Fischer, S., & Kibele, A. (2010). Learning flat and pike entries during swim start from the block. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  80. BIGGER JUNIOR SWIMMERS HAVE AN ADVANTAGE IN COMPETITIONS

    Pereira, A. F., Marques, M. C., Louro, H., Costa, A. M., Silva, A. J., Reis, V. M., & Marinho, D. A. (June 03, 2010). The relationship of anthropometrical characteristics and performance in junior international level swimmers. Presentation 2223 at the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; June 2-5.

  81. SWIMMING VELOCITIES ABOVE STEADY STATE INVOKE CHANGES IN STROKE FACTORS

    Pelarigo, J. G., Denadai, B. S., Fernandes, B. D., Santiago, D. R., César, T. E., Barbosa, L. F., & Greco, C. C. (2010). Stroke phases and coordination index around maximal lactate steady-state in swimming. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  82. BUTTERFLY ENTRY AND REPOSITIONING ARE MOST IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF THE STROKING TECHNIQUE

    Becker, T., & Havriluk, R. (2010). Quantitative data supplements qualitative evaluations of butterfly swimming. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  83. THE MOST IMPORTANT FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH 100 m SWIMMING PERFORMANCE ARE OTHER SWIMMING PERFORMANCES

    Aspenes, S. T., & Kjendlie, P.-L. (2010). 100 m freestyle: Factors affecting performance. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  84. SHOULDER ROLL INCREASES WHEN BREATHING IN CRAWL STROKE

    Psycharakis, S., & McCabe, C. (2010). Shoulder and hip roll differences between breathing and non-breathing conditions in front crawl swimming. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  85. NEW STARTING BLOCKS IMPROVE PERFORMANCE

    Biel, K., Fischer, S., & Kibele, A. (2010). Kinematic analysis of take-off performance in elite swimmers: New OSB11 versus traditional starting block. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  86. SLOW BUTTERFLY SWIMMING DOES NOT REPLICATE FAST BUTTERFLY SWIMMING

    de Jesus, K., de Jesus, K., Figueiredo, P. A., Gonçalves, P., Vilas-Boas, J. P., & Fernandes, R. J. (2010). Kinematical analysis of butterfly stroke: Comparison of three velocity variants. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  87. BACKSTROKE START WITH IMMERSED FEET IS PREFERABLE

    de Jesus, K., Figueiredo, P. A., Gonçalves, P., Pereira, S. M., Vilas-Boas, J. P., & Fernandes, R. J. (2010). Biomechanical characterization of the backstroke start in immerged and emerged feet conditions. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  88. UNDERWATER UNDULATORY DOUBLE-LEG KICKING SHOULD BE RESTRICTED TO HIPS AND BELOW

    Elipot, M., Houel, N., Hellard, P., & Dietrich, G. (2010). Motor coordination during the underwater undulatory swimming phase of the start for high level swimmers. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  89. GOOD START DIVES HAVE NOTABLE CHARACTERISTICS

    Fischer, S., & Kibele, A. (2010). A kinematic study on the dive-in behavior during swim start performance from the block. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  90. SOME OF THE FACTORS INVOLVED IN EFFECTIVE DOUBLE-LEG KICKING

    Houel, N., Elipot, M., Andrée, F., & Hellard, P. (2010). Kinematics analysis of the undulatory underwater swimming during a grab start of national level swimmers. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  91. ELITE SWIMMERS' STARTING PERFORMANCES LESSEN IN IMPORTANCE AS RACES LENGTHEN

    Petryaev, A.V. (2010). Efficiency analysis of swimmers’ starts using starting block with adjustable raised foot in competitions. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  92. TURN VELOCITY IS INFLUENCED BY PUSH OFF THE WALL AND STREAMLINE

    Zamparo, P., Vicentini, M., Zorzi, E., Scattolini, A., Rigamonti, A., & Bonifazi, M. (2010). The interplay between leg kick efficiency and pushing phase acceleration in determining the "turning speed" in front crawl swimming. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  93. BODY STREAMLINE IS IMPORTANT FROM THE PUSH OFF THE WALL

    Wada, T., Sato, T., Ohishi, K., Tago, T., Izumi, T, Matsumoto, T., Yamamoto, N., Isaka, T., & Shimoyama, Y. (2010). An analysis of the underwater gliding motion in collegiate competitive swimmers. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  94. AN EXPLOSIVE PUSH-OFF IN THE TURNING MOVEMENT IS VERY IMPORTANT FOR FEMALE SWIMMERS

    Puel, F., Morlier, J., Cid, M., Chollet, D., & Hellard, P. (2010). Biomechanical factors influencing tumble turn performance of elite female swimmers. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  95. AFTER DIVES AND TURNS SWIM DEEP

    Marinho, D. A., Barbosa, T. M., Mantripragada, N., Vilas-Boas, J. P., Rouard, A. H., Mantha, V., Rouboa, A. I., & Silva, A. J. (2010). The gliding phase in swimming: The effect of water depth. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  96. CASE STUDY OF BENEFICIAL CHANGE IN BUTTERFLY KICK

    Ide, T. (2010). The effects of straight leg kick on race performance in the sprint butterfly. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  97. SLIGHTLY SPREAD FINGERS PRODUCES GREATEST HAND DRAG-FORCE

    Marinho, D. A., Barbosa, T. M., Reis, V. M., Kjndlie, P. L., Alves, F. B., Vilas-Boas, J. P., Machado, L., Silva, A. J., & Rouboa, A. I. (2010). Swimming propulsion forces are enhanced by a small finger spread. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 26, 87-92.

  98. BODY ROLL DIFFERS BETWEEN SWIMMERS AND IS OFTEN INCONSISTENT

    Psycharakis, S. G., & Sanders, R. H. (2010). Body roll in swimming: A review. Journal of Sports Sciences, 28(3), 229–236.

  99. KICK SMALL AND FAST IN THE LATTER STAGES OF A 100 m BUTTERFLY RACE

    de Jesus, Kelly, de Jesus, Karla, Figueiredo, P., Alves, P. G., Vilar, S., Vilas-Boas, J. P., & Fernandes, R. J. (2011). Identifying fatigue effects in butterfly kicking during a maximal 100 m event. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 43(5). Supplement abstract 1776.

  100. A SLIGHT CHANGE IN A BACKSTROKE START PRODUCES DISCRETE DIFFERENT SKILL DEMANDS

    de Jesus, Karla, de Jesus, Kelly, Figueiredo, P., Gongalves, P., Pereira, S., Viler, S., Vilas-Boas, J. P., & Fernandes, R. J. (2011). Electromyographic analysis of the backstroke start with different feet positions. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 43(5). Supplement abstract 2309.

  101. INCREASING THE START BLOCK ANGLE MAY NOT IMPROVE PERFORMANCES

    Kaufmann, K., & Street, G. (2011). Influence of block angle on take-off velocity in swim starts. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 43(5). Supplement abstract 2319.

  102. KICKING IS RELATED TO FRONT CRAWL SWIMMING IN YOUNG SWIMMERS

    Oliveira, R., Marinho, D. A., Garrido, N. D., & Costa, A. M. (2011). The relationship between front crawl swimming performance and swimming technique in young swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 43(5), Supplement abstract 2321.

  103. SWIMMING COACHES HAVE NO CONSENSUS ON HOW AND WHAT TO TEACH IN A RACING START

    Wright, B. V., Comett, A. C., White, J. C., Parry, T. E., & Stager, J. M. (2011). Professional swim coach opinions regarding the competitive swim start: A national survey. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 43(5). Supplement abstract 3243.

  104. MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM CRAWL STROKE VELOCITIES SLOW EQUALLY IN A 200 m PERFORMANCE

    Psycharakis, S. G., Naemi, R., Connaboy, C., McCabe, C., & Sanders, R. H. (2010). Three-dimensional analysis of intracycle velocity fluctuations in frontcrawl swimming. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 20, 128-135.

  105. RUBBERIZED SWIMSUITS IMPROVE PROPELLING EFFICIENCY IN FEMALES

    Shiraki, T., Wakayoshi, K., Hata, H., Yamamoto, R., & Tomikawa, M. (2010). The effects of rubber swimsuits on swimmers measured by a lactic acid curve test. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  106. STROKING FORM REMAINS CONSTANT ACROSS A 200 m EFFORT

    Figueiredo, P., Seifert, L., Vilas.Boas, J. P., & Fernandes, R. J. (2012). Spatio-temporal coordination in high intensity swimming. Presentation 1919 at the 59th Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, San Francisco, California; May 29-June 2, 2012.

  107. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN DOUBLE-LEG KICKING

    Connaboy, C., Coleman, S., & Sanders, R. H. (2012). Gender differences in heave and pitch phase relationships in maximal undulatory underwater swimming. Presentation 1917 at the 59th Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, San Francisco, California; May 29-June 2, 2012.

  108. ARM IMPULSES SIMILAR ACROSS VARIANTS OF THE BACKSTROKE START

    De Jesus, Karla, de Jesus, Kelly, Figueiredo, P. A., Goncalves, P., Pereira, S. M., Vilas-Bolas, J. P., & Fernandes, R. J. (2012). Analysis of upper limb dynamometry in two variants of backstroke start technique. Presentation 1914 at the 59th Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, San Francisco, California; May 29-June 2, 2012.

  109. EMPHASIZE EXTENDING THE KNEES IN A GRAB START

    De Jesus, Karla, de Jesus, K., Roesler, H., Fernandes, R. J., & Vilas-Boas, J. P. (2013). Joint rotations during swimming grab start technique performance. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 45(5), Supplement abstract number 2937.

  110. FEW VARIABLES ASSOCIATED WITH BREAK-OUT VELOCITY FOLLOWING A FREESTYLE TURN

    Tanaka, T., Yoshimura, Y., Yasukaws, M., & Oishi, K. (2012). Skill differences for elite sprint freestyle competitive swimmers. Presentation 2980 at the 59th Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, San Francisco, California; May 29-June 2, 2012..

  111. TETHERED SWIMMING DOES NOT YIELD MUCH VALUABLE INFORMATION ABOUT SWIMMING 200m

    Rodacki, A. L., Santos, K. B., Pereira, G., & Bento, P. C. (2013). Fatigue effects on propulsive forces and stroke rate during tethered and front crawl swimming tests. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 45(5), Supplement abstract number 534..

  112. ARM STROKING AND LEG KICKING DO NOT ALWAYS FUNCTION IN A LIKE FREQUENCY PATTERN IN SPRINT CRAWL STROKE

    Wright, B. V., & Stager, J. M. (2013). Arm stroke and leg kick movement during front crawl swimming measured via accelerometry. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 45(5), Supplement abstract number 541..

  113. CHANGES IN ARM LOADING IN ON-LAND SIMLATION DO NOT EFFECT METABOLIC DEMAND OR COORDINATION IN SWIMMERS

    Hinman, M. G., Head, S. K., & Stager, J. M. (2013). Uneven arm load and rhythmic arm coordination. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 45(5), Supplement abstract number 1293.

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