Stocker, D., Pink, M., & Jobe, F. W. (1996). Comparison of shoulder injury in collegiate and masters level swimmers. In J. P. Troup, A. P. Hollander, D. Strasse, S. W. Trappe, J. M. Cappaert, & T. A. Trappe (Eds.), Biomechanics and medicine in swimming VII (pp. 90-95). London: E & FN Spon.

Collegiate and master's swimmers from 200 teams were surveyed about pre-disposing factors that lead to shoulder pain ("swimmer's shoulder").

Collegiate teams swam greater volumes and speeds but similar proportions of both groups reported shoulder pain. There was no association between pain and flexibility, hand-paddle use, or breathing side. The major factor that pre-disposed pain was fatigue. Strengthening the shoulder was suggested as a possible hedge against developing pain through fatigue.

Implication. Usually excessive fatigue is the factor that first precipitates swimmer's shoulder. Thus, adequate rest and recovery is as important as work. It is possible that some specific shoulder strengthening might also delay the onset of this condition.

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