Volume 14(6): April, 2009

DRUGS IN SPORT 4

This sixth issue of Volume 14 of Coaching Science Abstracts reviews articles concerned with drugs in sport. The entries in this issue have served as a resource for the editor when trying to understand this complex and undesirable phenomenon. It is far from being exhaustive of the topic.

Other resources that are related to this issue's topic are as follows:

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

    GENERAL AND TESTING

  1. CONTAMINATED DIETARY MEAT SOURCES THAT LEAD TO POSITIVE DRUG TESTS

    Rushall, B. S. (2003). Contaminated dietary meat sources that lead to positive drug tests. Private paper.

  2. DRUGS IN SPORT: DRIVEN BY SPECIOUS BELIEFS

    Rushall, B. S., & Jones, M. (2007). Drugs in sport: A cure worse than the disease? International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 2, 331-365.

  3. EXERCISE AND SIMULATED COMPETITIONS INCREASE HORMONE LEVELS

    Hackney, A. C., Viru, A., Viru, M., Karelson, K., Janson, T., Siim, K., & Fischer, K. (2006). Adrenergic influence on the hormonal response to exercise in endurance trained men. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 2572.

  4. POSITIVE TEST RESULTS INDICATING DRUG USE IS A MISTAKE-RIDDEN INFERENTIAL PROCESS

    Berry, D. A., & Chastain, L. (2004). Inferences about testosterone abuse among athletes. Chance, 17, 5-8.

  5. NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENT USE DOES NOT LEAD TO FURTHER SUBSTANCE USE IN ELITE SPORTS

    Striegel, H., Simon, P., Niess, A. M., & Ulrich, R. (2007). Nutritional supplement and illicit drug use in elite athletes. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number, 2578.

  6. PLACEBO EFFECTS CONTINUE AFTER DRUG ADMINISTRATIONS HAVE CEASED

    Benedetti, F., Pollo, A., & Colloca, L. (2007). Opioid-mediated placebo responses boost pain endurance and physical performance: is it doping in sport competitions? Journal of Neuroscience, 27, 11934-11939.

  7. CURRENT ANTI-DOPING PROGRAMS CAUSE PROBLEMS

    Kayser, B., Mauron, A., & Miah, A. (2007). Current anti-doping policy: A critical appraisal. BMC Medical Ethics, 8, 2 (published on line athttp://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6939/8/2).

  8. DRUG USE NOT RELATED TO WINNING- AND GOAL-ORIENTATION

    Petróczi, A. (2007). Attitudes and doping: a structural equation analysis of the relationship between athletes' attitudes, sport orientation and doping behavior. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, 2, 34.

  9. SUPPLEMENT USE INCREASES WITH AGE IN ADOLESCENCE

    Hoffman, J. R., Faigenbaum, A. D., Ratamess, N. A., Ross, R., Kang, J. & Tenenbaum, G. (2008). Nutritional supplementation and anabolic steroid use in adolescents. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 40, 15-24.

  10. SPORTS DRUG-TESTING HAS FAILED TO CHANGE BEHAVIOR OF ATHLETES

    Baron, D. A., Martin, D. M., & Samir, A. M. (2007). Doping in sports and its spread to at-risk populations: An international review. World Psychiatry, 6, 118-123.

  11. MOST NON-MEDICAL STEROID USERS ARE NOT ATHLETES

    Cohen, J., Collins, R., Darkes, J., & Gwartney, D. (2007). A league of their own: demographics, motivations and patterns of use of 1,955 male adult non-medical anabolic steroid users in the United States. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 4, 12-26.

  12. T/E RATIO TEST IS GENETICALLY BIASED – SOME INDIVIDUALS WILL NOT TEST POSITIVE DESPITE USING TESTOSTERONE

    Schulze, J. J., Lundmark, J., Garle, M., Skilving, I., Ekstrom, L., & Rane, A. (2008). Doping test results dependent on genotype of UGT2B17, the major enzyme for testosterone glucuronidation. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, [http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/jc.2008-0218v1].

  13. ANTI-DOPING POLICIES AIM AT THE WRONG POPULATION OF USERS

    Cohen, J., Collins, R., Darkes, J., & Gwartney, D. (2007). A league of their own: Demographics, motivations and patterns of use of 1,955 male adult non-medical anabolic steroid users in the United States. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 4, 12.

  14. SINGLE VALUE STANDARDS APPLIED TO ALL ACTIVITIES AND ATHLETES WILL LEAD TO ERRONEOUS DOPING-TEST CONCLUSIONS

    Skenderi, K. P., Tsironi, M., Papastamataki, M., Moshoyianni, H., Kavouras, S. A., Papassotiriou, I., & Chrousos, G. (2008). Suppression and partial recovery of hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis hormones in ultraendurance athletes. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis, Presentation Number, 2483.

  15. HORMONAL RESPONSES ARE INFLUENCED BY TIME-OF-DAY AND EXERCISE

    Graham, K., Bourke, D, Buddee, A., Townsend, N., & Rehrer, N. (2008). Hormonal responses to a period of training and recovery in trained male rowers. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis, Presentation Number, 798.

    STEROIDS AND PROHORMONES

  16. REPETITIVE EXHAUSTIVE RESISTANCE TRAINING STIMULATES TESTOSTERONE

    Marvin, D. P., Figueira, Jr., A. J., & Pinto, L. G. (2006). One session of resistance training may increase serum testosterone and triiodetironine in young Men? Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1774.

  17. CLOSTEBOL TRANSFER BY SEXUAL INTERCOURSE

    Pereira, H. M., Marques, M. A., Talhas, I. B., & Aquino Neto, F. R. (2004). Incidental Clostebol contamination in athletes after sexual intercourse. Clinical Chemistry, 50, 456-457.

  18. ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS DO NOT ENHANCE ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE OR RECOVERY

    Baume, N., Schumacher, Y. O., Sottas, P.-E., Bagutti, C., Cauderay, M., Mangin, P., & Saugy, M. (2006). Effect of multiple oral doses of androgenic anabolic steroids on endurance performance and serum indices of physical stress in healthy male subjects. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 98(4), 329-340. [Published online: 3 August 2006].

  19. SIGNIFICANT TESTOSTERONE USERS DO NOT ALWAYS TEST POSITIVE AND ANY PERFORMANCE INCREASES SEEM TO BE CONFOUNDED

    Deakin, G., Rogerson, S., Meir, R., Coutts, R., Zhour, S., Marshall-Gradisnik, S., & Weatherby, R. (2006). Performance enhancement and urinary detection after short-term testosterone enanthate use. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 2249.

  20. TESTOSTERONE USE NOT DETECTED BY THE WADA TEST IN 44% OF SUBJECTS

    Rogerson, S., Weatherby, R. P., Meir, R. A., Coutts, R. A., Zhou, S, & Marshall-Gradisnik, S. M., & Deaking, G. B. (2007). The effect of short-term use of testosterone enanthate on muscular strength and power in healthy young men. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 21, 354-361.

  21. ONLY MINOR PERSONALITY VARIABLES ARE ASSOCIATED WITH TESTOSTERONE USE

    Coutts, R. A., Rogerson, S., Deakin, G., Marshall-Gradisnik, S., Meier, R., Zhou, S., & Weatherby, R. (2007). Effect of short-term use of testosterone enanthate on personality and mood in healthy young males. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 2264.

  22. POSITIVE 19-NA TESTS ARE NOT NECESSARILY AN INDICATION OF DRUG INGESTION

    Hebestreit, M., Flenkera, Ul, Fusholler, G., Geyer, J., Guntnera, U., Mareck, U., Piper, T., Thevis, M., Ayotte, C., & Schanzer, W. (2006). Determination of the origin of urinary norandrosterone traces by gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Analyst, 131, 1021-1026.

  23. DHEA SUPPLEMENTATION MIGHT BENEFIT RECOVERY

    Yi-Hung, L., Quan-Fu, L., Mou-Chou, L., Chin-de, C., Wei-Hsiang, C., Chung-Yu, C., & Chia-Hua, K. (2007). Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone administration on recovery capacity during training session in male badminton players. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number, 2581.

  24. DHEA-S MODERATES THE RESPONSE TO ALTITUDE

    Chia-Hua, K., Wen-Chih, L., & Ivy, J. L. (2007). The magnitude of physiological response to altitude is associated with individual variation in DHEA-S levels. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number, 925.

  25. TESTOSTERONE DOES NOT IMPROVE MOVEMENT OR MENTAL FUNCTION

    Emmelot-Vonk, M. H., Verhaar, H. J., Pour, H. R., Aleman, A., Lock, T. M. Bosch, J. L., Grobbee, D. E., & van der Schouw, Y. T. (2008). Effect of testosterone supplementation on functional mobility, cognition, and other parameters in older men: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA Journal of the American Medical Association, 299, 39-52.

  26. SOME REMNANTS OF STEROID ABUSE REMAIN AFTER 12 MONTHS

    Urhausen, A., Albers, T., & Kindermann, W. (2004) Are the cardiac effects of anabolic steroid abuse in strength athletes reversible? Heart, 90(5), 496-501.

  27. STEROIDS INCREASE THE SIZE OF MUSCLES WHILE HYPERTROPHIC HEAVY RESISTANCE EXERCISE PRODUCES SPECIFIC AND LARGE EFFECTS

    D’Antona, G., Lanfranconi, F., Pellegrino, M. A., Brocca, L., Adami, R., Rossi, R., Moro, G., Miotti, D., Canepari, M., Bottinelli, R. (2006). Skeletal muscle hypertrophy and structure and function of skeletal muscle fibers in male body builders. Journal of Physiology, 570(Pt 3), 611-627.

  28. ANABOLIC-ANDROGENIC STEROID USE BY AMERICAN TEENAGE GIRLS IS GROSSLY INFLATED

    Kanayama, G., Boynes, M., Hudson, J. I., Field, A. E., & Pope, H. G. (2007). Anabolic steroid abuse among teenage girls: An illusory problem? Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 88, 156-162.

  29. STRENGTH IMPROVEMENT FROM EXOGENOUS TESTOSTERONE ONLY COMES FROM HIGH DOSES

    Bhasin, S., Woodhouse, L., Dzekov, C., Dzekov, J., Sinha-Hikim, I, Shen, R., Singh, A. B., Drew, C. R., Casaburi, R., Bhasin, D., Berman, N., Bross, R., Phillips, J., Chen, X., Yaarasheski, K. E., Magliano, L, & Storer, T. W. (2001). Testosterone dose-response relationships in healthy young men. American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism, 281, E1172-E1181.

  30. PROLONGED TESTOSTERONE SUPPLEMENTATION DOES NOT CHANGE PERFORMANCE OR FUNCTIONALITY

    Emmelot-Vonk, M. H., Verhaar, H. J., Nakhai Pour, H. R., Aleman, A., Lock, T. M., Ruud Bosch, J. L., Grobbee, D. E., & van der Schouw, Y. T. (2008). Effect of testosterone supplementation on functional mobility, cognition, and other parameters in older men: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA – Journal of the American Medical Association, 299, 39-52.

  31. TESTOSTERONE AND/OR GROWTH HORMONE ADMINISTRATION DOES NOT IMPROVE MUSCLE QUALITY

    Dieli-Conwright, C. M., Schroeder, E. T., Wang, Y., Binder, E., Castaneda-Sceppa, C., Yarasheski, K., Bhasin, S., Azen, S. P., & Sattler, F. R. (2008). Muscle quality following testosterone and/or growth hormone administration. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis, Presentation Number, 2480.

    HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE

  32. IGF-1 RESPONSES ARE GENERAL TO EXERCISE AND NOT SPECIFIC TO TYPE OF EXERCISE

    Nindl, B. C., Alemany, J. A., Rarick, K. R., Staab, J. S., Tuckown, A. P., Welsh, T. T., Gutehunst, D. J., Frykman, P. N., & Harman, E. A. (2006). Differential IGF-I system responses during 8 weeks of resistance vs. generalized physical training in men. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 991.

  33. GROWTH HORMONE DOES NOT ALTER FAT OXIDATION IN AEROBIC EXERCISE

    Hanse, M., Morthorst, R., Larsson, B., Dall, R., Flyvbjerg, A., Rasmussen, M. H., Orskov, J., Kjaer, M., & Lange, K. H. (2005). No effect of growth hormone administration on substrate oxidation during exercise in young, lean men. Physiology, 567(pt. 3), 1035-1045.

  34. GAMMA AMINOBUTYRIC ACID STIMULATES GROWTH HORMONE

    Powers, M. E., Yarrow, J. F., McCoy, S. C., & Borst, S. E., (2008). Growth hormone isoform responses to GABA ingestion at rest and after exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 40, 104-110.

  35. NO EVIDENCE FOR GROWTH HORMONE BEING PERFORMANCE-ENHANCING

    Liu, H., Bravata, D. M., Olkin, I., Friedlander, A., Liu, V., Roberts, B., Bendavid, E., Saynia, O., Salpeter, S. R., Garber, A. M., & Hoffman, A. R. (2008). Systematic review: The effects of growth hormone on athletic performance. Annals of Internal Medicine, 148(10), on line version.

  36. GROWTH HORMONE SUPPLEMENTATION DOES NOT IMPROVE STRENGTH OR INCREASE MUSCLE SIZE TO ANY GREAT DEGREE

    Yarasheski, K. E., Campbell, J. A., Smith, K., Rennie, M. J., Holloszy, J. O., & Bier, D. M. (1992). Effect of growth hormone and resistance exercise on muscle growth in young men. American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism, 262, E261-E267.

  37. HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE DOES NOT ENHANCE PERFORMANCE

    Rennie, M. J. (2003). Claims for the anabolic effects of growth hormone: A case of the emperor's new clothes? British Journal of Sports Medicine, 37, 100-105.

  38. ADDITIONAL RECOMBINANT HUMAN ERYTHROPOIETIN WILL NOT ENHANCE PERFORMANCE

    Wilkerson, D. P., Rittweger, J., Berger, N. J., Naish, P. F., & Jones, A. M. (2005). Influence of recombinant human erythropoietin treatment on pulmonary O2 uptake kinetics during exercise in humans. Journal of Physiology, 568(Part 2), 639-652.

  39. HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE USE IS NOT ASSOCIATED WITH STRENGTH GAINS

    Dean, H. (2002). Does exogenous growth hormone improve athletic performance? Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine, 12(4), 250-253.

  40. HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE RESPONSE IS RELATED TO AEROBIC BUT NOT ANAEROBIC UPPER-BODY FITNESS

    Bernardi, M., Radicioni, A., Fattorini, L., Bernardi, E., Ballesio, M., Faiola, F., Squeo, M. R., Egidi, F., & Lenzi, A. (2008). Growth hormone response to high intensity upper body exercise. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis, Presentation Number, 2477.

  41. RECOMBINANT HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE DOES NOT IMPROVE MUSCULAR ENDURANCE

    Erceg, D. N., Schroeder, E. T., Kawakubo, M., Castaneda-Sceppa, C., Binder, E. F., Yarasheski, K. E., Bhasin, S., Sattler, F R., & Azen, S. P. (2008). The effects of IGF-1 on aerobic muscle endurance in older hyposomatotropic men. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis, Presentation Number, 2481.

    ERYTHROPOIETIN (EPO)

  42. INTERMITTENT HYPOXIA DOES NOT DISRUPT TESTING FOR RECOMBINANT HUMAN ERYTHROPOIETIN

    Abellan, R., Ventura, R., Remacha, A. F., Rodriguez, F. A., Pascual, J. A., & Segura, J. (2007). Intermittent hypoxia exposure in a hypobaric chamber and erythropoietin abuse interpretation. Journal of Sports Science, 25, 1241-1250.

  43. EPO TESTING IS UNRELIABLE UNDER SOME CIRCUMSTANCES

    Delanghe, J. R., Bollen, M., & Beullens, M. (October 4, 2007). Testing for recombinant erythropoietin. American Journal of Hematology, Published Online [http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/116327230/ABSTRACT].

  44. ERYTHROPOIETIN RESPONSE TO ALTITUDE NOT ASSOCIATED WITH HEMOGLOBIN CHANGES IN TRAINED ATHLETES

    Friedmann, B., Frese, F., Menold, E., Kauper, F., Jost, J., & Bartsch, P. (2005). Individual variation in the erythropoietic response to altitude training in elite junior swimmers. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 39(3), 148-153.

    CAFFEINE

  45. LOW-DOSE CAFFEINE DOES NOT IMPROVE SPRINT SWIMMING BUT DOES AFFECT SLEEP

    Burke, L. M., Anderson, M. E., & Pyne, D. B. (2006). Low dose caffeine intake and sprint performance in swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1330.

  46. CAFFEINE ENHANCES ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCE

    Bidwell, W. K., Woolf, K., Carlson, A., & Vaughan, L. A. (2006). Effect of caffeine as an ergogenic aid on anaerobic exercise performance in highly trained athletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1331.

  47. CAFFEINE AIDS IN REDUCING DELAYED MUSCLE SORENESS AFTER ECCENTRIC EXERCISE

    Maridakis, V., O'Connor, P. J., Dudley, G. A., & McCully, K. (2006). Caffeine attenuates delayed onset muscle pain following eccentric exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1332.

  48. CAFFEINE IMPROVES 50-m SWIM PERFORMANCE IN SOME SWIMMERS

    Hill, M. R. (2006). Low dose caffeine use to improve 50-meter swimming performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1334.

  49. CAFFEINE INGESTION AFFECTS MOOD STATES

    Backshouse, S. H., Bishop, N. C., Biddle, S. J., & Williams, C. (2006). Caffeine ingestion prior to prolonged cycling can enhance positive affect and reduce perceived exertion. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1537.

  50. CAFFEINE MAY AFFECT THE LATTER SETS OF SOME RESISTANCE EXERCISES

    Wickwire, J., Green, J. M., Gendel, S., McLester, J. R., Pritchett, R., & Kovacs, M. (2006). The effects of caffeine on reps to failure and RPE during resistance training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1766.

  51. CAFFEINE EFFECTS ARE ADDED TO CARBOHYDRATE EFFECTS IN TEAM-SPORT EXERCISE

    Chen, S. C., Davis, J. M., Matthews, E., Crowley, P., Greene, N., Quig, M., Wilson, A., Payn, T., & Lyerly, W. (2006). Effects of caffeine and carbohydrate ingestion on physical/mental functions during sports exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 731.

  52. CAFFEINE OF LITTLE BENEFIT TO RESISTANCE TRAINING

    Hudson, G. M., Green, M., Bishop, P., & Richardson, M. (2007). Effects of caffeine and aspirin on resistance training performance, RPE, and pain perception. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number, 1586.

  53. SOME INDIVIDUALS BENEFIT FROM CAFFEINE IN MULTIPLE-SPRINT TASKS

    Glaister, M., Howatson, G., Abraham, C. S., Goodwin, J. E., Lockey, R. A., Foley, P., & McInnes, G. (2007). Caffeine supplementation and multiple-sprint running performance. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number, 2579.

  54. CAFFEINE EFFECTS OVERRIDE BELIEFS ABOUT PERFORMANCE CAPABILITIES

    Foad, A. J., Beedie, C. J., & Coleman, D. A. (2008). Pharmacological and psychological effects of caffeine ingestion in 40-km cycling performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 40, 158-165.

  55. CAFFEINE INCREASES VO2max AND LACTATE THRESHOLD

    VanBruggen, M. D., Campos, M., Olson, B. A., & Claypool, D. (2008). The effect of caffeine on maximal oxygen consumption and lactate threshold in cross-country runners. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis, Presentation Number, 2030.

  56. CAFFEINE IS ASSOCIATED WITH IMPROVEMENTS IN SOCCER GAME SKILLS

    Foskett, A., Ali, A., & Grant, N. (2008). Caffeine ingestion and skill performance during simulated soccer activity. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis, Presentation Number, 2031.

  57. CAFFEINE INGESTION IMPROVES AEROBIC PERFORMANCE

    Tirapegui, J., Leitao, H. A., Leal, F. L., Rocha, F. C., Neto, M. M., & Figueiredo, R. G. (2008). Ergogenic effect of caffeine on the physical maximum performance of cyclists. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis, Presentation Number, 2032.

  58. CAFFEINE STIMULATES CARBOHYDRATE-INDUCED FAT OXIDATION

    Slivka, D., Cuddy, J., Hailes, W., & Ruby, B. (2008). Effects of caffeine and carbohydrate use on exercise performance, substrate oxidation, and salivary cortisol. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis, Presentation Number, 2034.

  59. CAFFEINE DOES NOT ALTER REACTION TIME IN A POWER ACTIVITY

    Fettrow, L., Bellar, D., Kamimori, G. H., Glickman, E. L., Barkley, J. E., Ryan, E. J., Bliss, M. V., & Bellar, A. (2008). The effects of caffeine on reaction time as shown in the standing shot put throw. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis, Presentation Number, 2035.

  60. LOW-DOSE CAFFEINE INCREASES SHOT PUT PERFORMANCE

    Bliss, M. V., Bellar, D., Kamimori, G. H., Glickman, E. L., Barkley, J. E., Ryan, E. J., & Bellar, A. (2008). The effect of caffeine supplementation on performance in the standing shot put throw. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis, Presentation Number, 2036.

  61. CAFFEINE DOES NOT AFFECT POSITIONING FACTORS BUT DOES AFFECT FORCE REPLICATION FACTORS

    Henry, S., & Gamble, J. (2008). The effects of caffeine on proprioception. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis, Presentation Number, 2038.

  62. CAFFEINE IMPROVES COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN STRESSFUL EXERCISE

    Oliveira, M., Hogervorst, E., Gleeson, M., Bandelow, S., & Schmitt, J. (2008). The effects of caffeine on cognitive performance during and following prolonged exercise to exhaustion. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis, Presentation Number, 2041.

  63. POST-EXERCISE CAFFEINE PLUS CARBOHYDRATE INCREASES MUSCLE GLYCOGEN IN RECOVERY

    Hawley, J. A., Pedersen, D. J., Lessard, S. J., Coffey, V. G., Churchley, E. G., Wootton, A. M., Hg, T., & Watt, M. J. (2008). High rates of muscle glycogen resynthesis after exhaustive exercise when carbohydrate is co-ingested with caffeine. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis, Presentation Number, 669.

    OTHER DRUGS AND PROCEDURES

  64. HIGH-DOSE ASCORBIC ACID ATTENUATES EXERCISE-INDUCED ASTHMA

    Tecklenburg, S., Stager, J. M., Bai, Y., Fly, A. D., & Mickelborough, T. D. (2006). Ascorbic acid supplementation reduces severity of exercise-induced asthma. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 2158.

  65. FISH OIL SUPPLEMENTATION ATTENUATES EXERCISE-INDUCED BRONCHOCONSTRICTION

    Mickelborough, T. D., Lindley, M. R., Alina, I. A., & Fly, A. D. (2006). Protective effect of fish oil supplementation on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic subjects. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 2160.

  66. MODAFINIL AND CAFFEINE HAVE EQUIVALENT EFFECTS ON PERFORMANCE

    Wesensten, N. J., Belenky, G., Kautz, M. A., Thorne, D. R., Reichardt, R. M., & Balkinn, T. J. (2002). Maintaining alertness and performance during sleep deprivation: modafinil versus caffeine. Psychopharmacology, 159(3), 238-247.

  67. NICOTINE HAS NO EROGENIC EFFECT ON MUSCULAR POWER

    Meier, J. N., & Albrechtsen, S. J. (2007). Effects of nicotine on muscular power in collegiate football players. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number, 2584.

  68. PREDNISOLONE IMPROVES SUB-MAXIMAL PERFORMANCE AND ALTERS HORMONAL AND METABOLIC FACTORS

    Arlettaz, A., Portier, H., Lecoq, A. M., Rieth, N., De Ceaurriz, J., & Collomp, K. (2007). Effects of short-term prednisolone intake during submaximal exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 39, 1672-1678.

  69. SALBUTAMOL IS NOT PERFORMANCE-ENHANCING

    Sporer, B. C., Sheel, A. W., & McKenzie, D. C. (2008). Dose response of inhaled salbutamol on exercise performance and urine concentrations. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 40, 149-157.

  70. DATED CLAIMS FOR BLOOD DOPING

    Jones, M., & Tunsall Pedoe, D. S. (1989). Blood doping--a literature review. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 23(2), 84-88.

  71. AMPHETAMINES PARTIALLY UNLOCK ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE RESERVES

    Swart, J., Lamberts, R. P., Lambert, M. I., St Clair-Gibson, A., Lambert, E. V., Skowno, J., & Noakes, T. D. (December 3, 2008). Exercising with reserve: Evidence that the CNS regulates prolonged exercise performance. British Journal of Sports Medicine, [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19052141?dopt=Abstract].

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