Volume 11(4): February, 2006

ALTITUDE TRAINING 4

This fourth issue of Volume 11 of Coaching Science Abstracts is the fourth issue that reviews articles concerned with altitude training. It adds to the abstracts presented in Volume 2(4), Volume 5(4), and Volume 8(4). Many of the research problems noted in those issues persist to this day.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

ALTITUDE ADAPTATION

  1. LIVING AT ALTITUDE DOES NOT PRODUCE CONSISTENT PHYSIOLOGICAL ADAPTATIONS

    Winslow, R. M., Chapman, K. W., Gibson, C. C., Samaja, M., Monge, C. C., Goldwasser, E., Sherpa, M., Blume, F. D., & Santolaya, R. (1989). Different hematologic responses to hypoxia in Sherpas and Quecha Indianas. Journal of Applied Physiology, 66, 1561-1569.

  2. EPO IS THE ONLY BLOOD FACTOR TO RESPOND TO ONE WEEK'S EXPOSURE TO MODERATE ALTITUDE

    Schena, F., Cuzzolin, L., Rossi, L., Pasetto, M. & Benoni, G. (2002). Plasma nitrite/nitrate and erythropoietin levels in cross-country skiers during altitude training. Journal of Sports medicine and Physical Fitness, 42, 129-134.

  3. MODERATE ALTITUDE STIMULATES PULMONARY LIMITATIONS IN AEROBIC WORK

    Schouweiler, C. M., & Stray-Gundersen, J. (2002). Individual variation in the decrease of VO2 at 1800 m in elite female cross-country skiers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1246.

  4. SWEATING IS REDUCED AFTER EXTENDED EXPOSURE TO ALTITUDE

    Ventline, H. E., Giordano, L. M., Luetkemeier, M. J., & Davis, J. E. (2004). Effects of moderate altitude on peripheral sweating. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 765.

  5. ALTITUDE SLOWS LACTATE CLEARANCE AFTER EXHAUSTIVE EXERCISE

    Hawkins, K., Hauser, B., Davis, J. E., & Luetkemeier, M. J. (2004). Effect of altitude on lactate removal rates following high-intensity exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 766.

  6. EXERCISE ADAPTATIONS AT ALTITUDE ARE RETAINED FOR MORE THAN EIGHT DAYS AT SEA LEVEL

    Beidleman, B. A., Muza, S. R., Rock, P. B., Fulco, C. S., Lyons, T. P., Hoyt, R. W., & Cymerman, A. (1997). Exercise responses after altitude acclimatization are retained during introduction to altitude. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29, 1588-1595.

  7. PROTEIN LOSS IS ACCELERATED AT HIGH ALTITUDE

    Grediagin, A., Smith, T., Lesher, S., Moynihan, S., Fulco, C., Friedlander, A., Cymerman, A., & Young, A. (2003). Nitrogen balance during energy deficit at altitude (4,300 m). Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1919.

  8. DIET DOES NOT AFFECT ALTITUDE ACCLIMATIZATION

    Wewer, K. M., Wilkens, H. D., Wing, S. L., Subudhi, A. W.,& Askew, E. W. (2004). Dietary macronutrients and blood oxygenation during acute hypoxic exposure. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 2307.

  9. MOOD RECOVERS QUICKLY AFTER EXPOSURE TO HIGH ALTITUDE

    Kambis, K. W., Muza, S. R., McQuaid, D. B., MacDonald, J. R., Rock, P. B., Cymerman, A., Friedlander, A., Walterick, P., Sury, J., & Griffin, E. (2002). Relationship between mood state and oxygen saturation during residence at high altitude. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1248.

  10. ALTITUDE INCREASES MOOD REACTIONS TO EXERCISE

    Kambis, K. W., Fulco, C. S., Friedlander, A. L., McQuaid, D. B., Jackson, C. W., Ickes, S. B., Muza, S. R., Rock, P. B., Cook, L., & Cymerman, A. (2003). Assessment of mood changes at 45% and 65% VO2max at sea level and 4,300 m altitude. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 887.

  11. ALTITUDE INCREASES EXERCISE STRESS AND MOOD DISTURBANCE

    Lane, A. M., Whyte, G. P., Shave, R., Barney, S., Wilson, M., & Terry, P. C. (2003). Mood disturbance during cycling performance at altitude. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 888.

    ALTITUDE AND PERFORMANCE

  12. TRAINING AND LIVING AT ALTITUDE DOES NOT ALLOW MAXIMAL ADAPTATION FOR SEA LEVEL PERFORMANCE

    Wyatt, F. B., McCarthy, J. P., Neason, M. V., & Welch, B. S. (2002). Comparing post exercise blood lactate between sea level and altitude natives. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1336.

  13. SODIUM CITRATE IS NOT ERGOGENIC FOR ANAEROBIC WORK

    Fernandez-Castanys B. F., Fernandez, M. D., & Garcia, J. A. (2002). The effect of sodium citrate intake on anaerobic performance in normoxia and after sudden ascent to a moderate altitude. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 42, 179-185.

  14. POWER DECREASES AS ALTITUDE INCREASES

    Siegler, J. S. McCarthy, J. P., Wyatt, F. B., Faria, E. W., & Robergs, R. A. (2003). Physiological threshold associations at varying levels of hypobaric hypoxia. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1978.

  15. HYPOXIA (ALTITUDE) DEPRESSES SWIMMING PERFORMANCE

    Toussaint, H. M., Truijens, M. J., van Asseldone, E., & Levine, B. D. (2004). Hypoxic training in well-trained swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 2311.

  16. ALTITUDE TRAINING AND ANY OF ITS VARIANTS ARE LIKELY TO BE OF NO BENEFIT FOR SEA-LEVEL PERFORMANCE

    McConnell, A. (2004). Altitude training -- Reaching for new heights: Is it all a waste of time and money? Peak Performance, 202, 1-4.

  17. ACUTE EXPOSURE TO LOW ALTITUDE CAUSES AEROBIC PERFORMANCE TO DECLINE

    Sucec, A. A., Stenqvist, J., Abbott, K., & Dunn, R. (2004). Endurance performance and lactate threshold decline at low altitude (1,410 m) in female and male distance runners. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 758.

    LIVE HIGH (Hypobaric Hypoxia) - TRAIN LOW (Normobaric Normoxia)

  18. LIVE HIGH-TRAIN LOW CAMP IS ASSOCIATED WITH RUNNERS' IMPROVEMENTS

    Stray-Gundersen, J., Chapman, R. F., & Levine, B. D. (2001). "Living high-training low" altitude training improves sea level performance in male and female elite runners. Journal of Applied Physiology, 91, 1113-1120.

    LIVE CONTRIVED (Normobaric Hypoxia) - TRAIN LOW (Normobaric Normoxia)

  19. HYPERBARIC OXYGEN THERAPY DOES NOT IMPROVE MUSCLE INJURY RECOVERY

    Babul, S., Rhodes, E. C., Taunton, J. E., & Lepawsky, M. (2002). Hyperbaric oxygen therapy as a form of treatment for an acute soft tissue injury. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 553.

  20. NORMOBARIC HYPOXIC TRAINING DOES NOT IMPROVE SEA LEVEL PERFORMANCE

    Karlsen, T., Madsen, O., Rolf, S., & Stray-Gundersen, J. (2002). Effects of 3 weeks hypoxic interval training on sea level cycling performance and hematological parameters. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1250.

  21. HYPOXIC TRAINING AT SEA LEVEL DOES NOT ADD ANYTHING EXTRA TO NORMAL SWIMMING TRAINING

    Truijens, M. J., Dow, J., Cabayo, J., Palmer, D., Witkowski, S., Chase, P., Toussaint, H. M., & Levine, B. D. (2002). The effect of high intensity hypoxic training on sea-level swimming performances. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1337.

  22. HYPOXIC TENTS PRODUCE MIXED REACTIONS IN CYCLISTS

    Martin, D. T., Hahn, A. G., Lee, H., Roberts, A. D., Victor, J., & Gore, C. J. (2002). Effects of a 12-day live-high, train-low cycling camp on 4-min and 30-min performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1538.

  23. HYPOXIC AND NORMOXIC TRAINING HAVE SIMILAR EFFECTS ON ENDURANCE TRAINED CYCLISTS

    Ventura, N., Hoppeler, H., Seiler, R., Binggeli, A., Mullis, P., & Vogt, M. (2003). The response of trained athletes to six weeks of endurance training in hypoxia or normoxia. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 24, 166-172.

  24. CONTRIVED HYPOXIA DOES NOT IMPROVE ENDURANCE STRENGTH TRAINING

    Friedman, B., Kinscherf, R., Borisch, S., & Bartsch, P. (2003). Effects of strength endurance training in severe normobaric hypoxia on muscle structure and gene expression. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 890.

  25. SOME ADAPTATION IS NEEDED TO SLEEPING IN HYPOXIC TENTS

    Emegbo, S., Pedlar, C., Stanley, & Whyte, G. (2003). Acute normobaric hypoxia and its effects on measures of sleep quality in recreational athletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 891.

  26. HYPOXIC TENTS DO NOT AFFECT PSYCHOMOTOR OR COGNITIVE FACTORS

    Degia, A., Emegbo, S., Stanley, N., Pedlar, C., & Whyte, G. (2003). Effect of acute normobaric hypoxia on cognitive and psychomotor function in recreational athletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 893.

  27. INTERMITTENT HYPOXIA DOES NOT IMPROVE VENTILATION IN TRAINING ATHLETES

    Townsend, N. E., Gore, C. J., Truijens, M. J., Rodriguez, F. A., Stray-Gundersen, J., & Levine, B. D. (2004). Ventilatory acclimatization to intermittent hypoxia in well-trained runners and swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 2315.

  28. INTERMITTENT HYPOXIA DOES NOT IMPROVE PERFORMANCE ECONOMY IN TRAINING ATHLETES

    Truijens, M. J., Rodriguez, F. A., Palmer, D., Townsend, N. E., Gore, C. J., Stray-Gundersen, J., & Levine, B. J. (2004). The effect of intermittent hypobaric hypoxic exposure on economy in runners and swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 2318.

  29. INTERMITTENT HYPOXIA DOES NOT IMPROVE PERFORMANCE IN TRAINING ATHLETES

    Rodriguez, F. A., Truijens, M. J., Townsend, N. E., Martini, E. R., Stray-Gundersen, J., Gore, C. J., & Levine, B. D. (2004). Effects of four weeks of intermittent hypobaric hypoxia on sea level running and swimming performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 2319.

  30. THERE ARE MARKED INDIVIDUAL VARIATIONS IN RESPONSES TO HYPOXIA

    Austin, K. G., Daigle, K., Cowman, J., Bograd, B., & Haymes, E. (2004). Regulation of erythropoietin production and iron metabolism: Control by arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation vs. set altitude exposure. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 761.

  31. EPO CAN BE INCREASED BY THREE HOURS A DAY IN A HYPOBARIC CHAMBER

    Stray-Gundersen, J., Gore, C, J., Rodriguez, F. A., Truijens, M., Townsend, N. E., Williams, K., & Levine, B. D. (2004). Effect of intermittent hypobaric hypoxia on erythropoiesis. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 2306.

  32. HYPOBARIC EXPOSURES DO NOT AFFECT ATHLETESí HEMODYNAMICS

    Shiller, S. M., Townsend, N., Fu, Q., Martini, E., Williams, K., Rodriguez, F., Gore, C., Truijens, M., Stray-Gundersen, J., & Levine, B. (2004). Hemodynamic responses to intermittent hypoxia exposure in trained athletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 2309.

  33. HYPOXIC ENVIRONMENTS ELEVATE THERMOREGULATORY DEMANDS

    Blegen, M., Cheatham, C. C., Caine-Bish, N., & Glickman, E. L. (2004). The thermoregulatory responses to exercise of varying intensities in normoxic and hypoxic Environments. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 2310.

  34. ERYTHROPOIESIS IS ACCELERATED BY HYPOXIC BREATHING

    Hamlin, M. J., & Hellemans, J. (2004). Effects of intermittent normobaric hypoxia on blood parameters in multi-sport endurance athletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 2316.

  35. ALTITUDE TENTS IMPROVED RUNNING PERFORMANCE

    Hinckson, E. A., & Hopkins, W. G. (2005). Changes in running performance following intermittent altitude exposure simulated with tents. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37(5), Supplement abstract 262.

    GENERAL

  36. CIRCULATION HAS TO READAPT EACH TIME WHEN EXPOSED TO ALTITUDE

    Prommer, N., Viola, T., Behn, C., & Schmidt, W. (2002). Respiratory and cardio-circulatory responses to exercise after 6 month adaptation to intermittent hypoxia (3500m). Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 1376.

  37. ANTIOXIDANTS DO NOT REDUCE ACUTE MOUNTAIN SICKNESS

    Jacobs, K. A., Muza, S. R., Pdigeon, S., Hagobian, T. A., Subudhi, A. W., Stone, K. S., Fattor, J. A., Fulco, C. S., Rock, P. B., Cymerman, A., & Friedlander, A. L. (2003). Antioxidant supplementation does not reduce incidence or severity of acute mountain sickness at 4300 m. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 900.

  38. HYPEROXIC TRAINING MIGHT IMPROVE CARDIORESPIRATORY FUNCTION

    Wilson, B. A., Reid, J. C., Perry, C. G., & Perry, W. M. (2003). Effects of high intensity interval training in hyperoxia compared to normoxia. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 2067.

  39. SODIUM CITRATE IS NOT ERGOGENIC AT MODERATE ALTITUDE

    Lopiccolo, M., Woodcock, J., Hancock, B., Davis, J. E., & Luetkemeier, M. J. (2004). Effects of sodium citrate ingestion on exercise performance at moderate altitude. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 1173.

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