Volume 5(4): February, 2000

ALTITUDE TRAINING 2

This fourth issue of Volume 5 of Coaching Science Abstracts is the second issue that reviews articles concerned with altitude training. It adds to the abstracts presented in Volume 2(4). Many of the research problems noted in that issue still exist today.

This issue reports a new development in the study of altitude or pseudo-altitude training and its effects on sea level performance. To make the listing of articles more complete, six articles have been repeated from Volume 2(4), Altitude Training. Those articles are contained in sections 3 and 4. It is recommended that the abstract #13 be read first because it explains why the two sections are worthy of note.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

ALTITUDE ADAPTATION

  1. FEMALES AFFECTED LESS BY ALTITUDE THAN MALES

    Robergs, R. A., Quintana, R., Parker, D., & Frankel, C. C. (1997). Gender specific decrement in VO2max with increasing hypobaric hypoxia. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29(5), Supplement abstract 777.

  2. ALTITUDE INFLUENCES LACATATE KINETICS IN FEMALES

    Quintana, R., Robergs, R. A., Parker, D., & Frankel, C. C. (1997). Gender specific changes in the lactate threshold with increasing hypobaric hypoxia. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29(5), Supplement abstract 774.

  3. WOMEN FUEL EXERCISE AT ALTITUDE DIFFERENTLY TO MEN

    Braum, B., Butterfield, G. E., Mawson, J. T., Muza, S., Dominick, B. S., Rock, P. B., & Moore, L. G. (1997). Women at altitude: Substrate oxidation during steady-state exercise at sea level and after acclimatization to 4300 meters elevation. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29(5), Supplement abstract 784.

  4. ADAPTATIONS ARE PARTIALLY RETAINED WITH REINTRODUCTION TO ALTITUDE

    Beidleman, B. A., Muza, S. R., Rock, P. B., Fulco, C. S., Lyons, T. P., Hoyt, R. W., & Cymerman, A. (1997). Exercise responses after altitude acclimatization are retained during reintroduction to altitude. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29, 1588-1595.

  5. VENTRICULAR STRUCTURE NOT ALTERED BY SHORT-TERM ALTITUDE TRAINING

    Haykowsky, M.J., Smith, D.J., Malley, L., Norris, S.R., & Smith, E.R. (1998). Effects of short-term altitude training and tapering on left ventricular morphology in elite swimmers. Canadian Journal of Cardiology, 14(5), 678-681.

  6. MUSCLE ENZYMES AND IMMUNE SYSTEM NOT AFFECTED BY MODERATE-ALTITUDE TRAINING

    Wilber, R. L., Drake, S. D., Hesson, J. L., Nelson, J. A., Kearney, J. T., & Dallam, G. M. (1998). Effect of altitude training on skeletal muscle enzymes and immune response of elite triathletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30(5), Supplement abstract 988.

  7. BL AND HR THRESHOLDS UNRELATED TO AND NOT AFFECTED BY SHORT-TERM ALTITUDE EXPOSURE

    Paxinos, T. S., Pavlou, K. N., & Athanasopoulos, S. (1998). Acute exposure to medium altitude and its effect on the anaerobic threshold in children. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30(5), Supplement abstract 1512.

  8. ALTITUDE TRAINING SUPPRESSES BLOOD LACTATE FACTORS

    Brands, R. L., Cooper, T. L., Leonard, M. J., Seelbach, J. D., & Davis, J. E. (1998). Effects of altitude on maximum anaerobic power and blood lactate responses. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30(5), Supplement abstract 1595.

    ALTITUDE AND PERFORMANCE

  9. FEMALES DO NOT EXHAUST AS QUICKLY AS MALES AT ALTITUDE

    Fulco, C. S., Rock, P. B., Muza, S. R., Lammi, E., Moore, L. G., Beidleman, B. A., Lewis, S. G., & Cymerman, A. (1997). Adductor pollicis muscle fatigue in women during acute altitude exposure. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29(5), Supplement abstract 776.

  10. ALTITUDE RESIDENTS IMPROVE TIMES WHEN THEY COMPETE AT SEA LEVEL

    D'Acquisto, L. J., Tran, Z. V., Jackson, C. G. R., & Troup, J. P (1996). Energy release during altitude and acute simulated sea level exposure in altitude acclimatized/trained swimmers. In J. P. Troup, A. P. Hollander, D. Strasse, S. W. Trappe, J. M. Cappaert, & T. A. Trappe (Eds.), Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming VII (pp. 140-145). London: E & FN Spon.

  11. RUNNING TRAINING AT LOW AND MODERATE ALTITUDES OF NO BENEFIT

    Stray-Gundersen, J., Levine, B., & Bertocci, L. A. (1999). Effect of altitude training on runner's skeletal muscle. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31(5), Supplement abstract 811.

  12. COMPETING AT HIGH ALTITUDE NO MORE DANGEROUS THAN AT LOW ALTITUDE

    Roi, G. S., Giacometti, M., Banfi, G., Zaccaria, M., Gritti, I., & Von Duvillard, S. P. (1999). Competitive running at high altitude: Is it safe? Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31(5), Supplement abstract 861.

    LIVE HIGH (Hypobaric Hypoxia)-- TRAIN LOW (Normobaric Normoxia)

  13. VARIATIONS IN LIVE HIGH -- TRAIN LOW RESEARCH

    Rushall Comments, 1999.

  14. LIVING HIGH AND TRAINING LOW: AN EARLY STUDY

    Levine, B. D., Engfred, K., Friedman, D., Kjaer, M., Saltin, B., Clifford, P. S., & Secher, N. H. (1990). High altitude endurance training: Effect on aerobic capacity and work performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 22(5), Supplement abstract 209.

  15. HIGH-LOW TRAINING EFFECTS

    Levine, B. D., Friedman, B., & Stray-Gundersen, J. (1996). Confirmation of the "high-low" hypothesis: Living at altitude - training near sea level improves sea level performance. Medicine and Science in Exercise and Sports, 28(5), Supplement abstract 742.

  16. RESERVED SUPPORT FOR LIVE HIGH--TRAIN LOW ENVIRONMENTS

    Dehnert, C., Peterle, C., Lormes, W., Liu, Y., Menold, E., Baur, S., Hutler, M., Boning, D., Gabriel, H., Gomez-Islinger, R., Lehmann, M., & Steinacker, J. M. (1997). Effect of sleep-high/train-low on performance and well-being in well-trained triathletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29(5), Supplement abstract 782.

  17. SUPPORT FOR LIVE-HIGH/TRAIN-LOW ENVIRONMENTS

    Stray-Gundersen, J., & Levine, B. D. (1997). "Living high-training high and low" is equivalent to "living high-training low" for sea level performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29(5), Supplement abstract 783.

  18. LIVE HIGH -- TRAIN LOW IMPROVES RUNNERS

    Stray-Gundersen, J., Chapman, J. R., & Levine, B. D. (1998). HILO training improves performance in elite runners. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30(5), Supplement abstract 198.

  19. LIVING HIGH AND TRAINING LOW DOES NOT CHANGE HEMOGLOBIN AFFINITY FOR OXYGEN

    Schick, R., Hutler, M., Dehnert, C., Steinacker, J. M., & Boning, D. (1998). "Living high--training low" effects on oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30(5), Supplement abstract 1087.

    LIVE CONTRIVED (Normobaric Hypoxia) - TRAIN LOW (Normobaric Normoxia)

  20. LIVE HIGH, TRAIN LOW: ONE STUDY

    Rusko, H., Leppavuori, A., Makela, P., & Leppaluoto, J. (1995). Living high, training low: A new approach to altitude training at sea level in athletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 27(5), Supplement abstract 36.

  21. LIVING HIGH, TRAINING LOW

    Nummela, A., Jouste, P., & Rusko, H. (1996). Effect of living high and training low on sea level performance in runners. Medicine and Science in Exercise and Sports, 28(5), Supplement abstract 740.

  22. MORE ON LIVING HIGH -- TRAINING LOW

    Mattila, V., & Rusko, H. (1996). Effect of living high and training low on sea level performance in cyclists. Medicine and Science in Exercise and Sports, 28(5), Supplement abstract 928.

  23. LIVING HIGH -- TRAINING LOW RESPONSES

    Puranen, A. S., & Rusko, H. K. (1996). On- and off-responses of EPO, reticulocytes, 2,3-DPG and plasma volume to living high, training low. Medicine and Science in Exercise and Sports, 28(5), Supplement abstract 947.

  24. VO2max, EPO, AND RED CELL MASS UNRELATED IN TRAINED ATHLETES

    Rusko, H. K., Tikkanen, H., Paavolainen, L, Hamalainen, I., Kalliokoski, K., & Puranen, A. (1999). Effect of living in hypoxia and training in normoxia on sea level VO2max and red cell mass. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31(5), Supplement abstract 277.

  25. TRAINING IMPROVEMENTS TOO GOOD TO BE TRUE?

    Meeuwsen, T., Hendriksen, I. J. M., & Holewijn, M. (1999). Sea-level performance is enhanced by acute intermittent hypobaric hypoxia. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31(5), Supplement abstract 787.

  26. CARDIAC OUTPUT ONLY PARTLY AFFECTED BY ATMOSPHERIC OXYGEN SATURATION

    Peltonen, J. E., Tikkanen, H. O., & Rusko, H. K. (1999). Cardiac output in hyperoxia, normoxia, and hypoxia. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31(5), Supplement abstract 816.

    GENERAL

  27. BIASED ADVOCACY FOR ALTITUDE TRAINING

    Miyashita, M. (1996). Key factors in success of altitude training for swimming. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 67, Supplement to issue 3, 76-78.

  28. SEA LEVEL PERFORMANCE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASURES DO NOT PREDICT RESPONSES AT ALTITUDE

    Roberts, A. D., Daley, P. J., Martin, D. T., Hahn, A., Gore, C. J., & Spence, R. (1998). Sea level VO2max fails to predict VO2max and performance at 1800 m altitude. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30(5), Supplement abstract 628.

  29. MOOD STATE INSENSITIVE TO TRAINING AND LIVING ALTITUDES

    Coyle, M. A., Raglin, J. S., & Stager, J. M. (1998). Mood state of runners participating in an elite developmental training camp. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30(5), Supplement abstract 694.

  30. SPURIOUS ALTITUDE TRAINING EFFECTS IN SWIMMERS

    Pyne, D. B. (1998). Performance and physiological changes in highly trained swimmers during altitude training. Coaching and Sport Science Journal, 3, 42-48.

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