ABSTRACTS IN THE PHYSIOLOGY OF SWIMMING

This section of the Swimming Science Journal abstracts articles concerned with the physiology of swimming. As articles are located they are appended to the end of the list.

blue line

TABLE OF CONTENTS

  1. SWIMMING DEVELOPS BREATHING CAPACITY

    Cordain, L., Tucker, A, Moon, D. & Stager, J. M. (1990). Lung volumes and maximal respiratory pressures in collegiate swimmers and runners. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 61, 70-74.

  2. JUSTIFICATIONS FOR WARMING-UP

    Robergs, R. A., Costill, D. A., Fink, W. J., Williams, C., Pascoe, D. D., Chwalbinska-Moneta, J., & Davis, J. A. (1990). Effects of warm-up on blood gases, lactate and acid-base status during sprint swimming. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 11, 273-278.

  3. CONTROLLED FREQUENCY BREATHING HAS NO TRAINING BENEFIT

    Town, G. P., & Vanness, M. J. (1990). Conditioning swimmers: aerobic and anaerobic responses to controlled frequency breathing under watchful eye. Swimming Technique, May-July, 8-12.

  4. HYPOXIC TRAINING HAS NO BENEFITS

    Craig, A. B., Jr., (1982). Fallacies of "hypoxic training" in swimming. In L. Lewillie & J. P. Clarys (Eds.), International series on sport sciences, SWIMMING II, Vol. 2. Baltimore: University Park Press.

  5. STRENGTH TRAINING DOES NOT IMPROVE AEROBIC ADAPTATION

    Schantz, P. G., & Kallman, M. (1989). Strength training is ineffective for oxidative metabolism. Swimming Technique, 5, 5-6.

  6. OVERTRAINING IN SWIMMING

    Parker, J. (1989). Wiping your swimmers out. Swimming Technique, May-July, 10-16.

  7. CARBOHYDRATE DEFICIENCY COULD OCCUR WITH EXCESSIVE TRAINING

    Costill, D. L., Flynn, M. G., Kirwan, J. P., Houmard, J. A., Mitchell, J. B., Thomas, R., & Park, S. H. (1988). Effects of repeated days of intensified training on muscle glycogen and swimming performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 20, 249-254.

  8. LARGE REDUCTIONS IN WORK DO NOT REDUCE AEROBIC CAPACITY

    Neufer, P. D., Costill, D. L., Fielding, R. A., Flynn, M. G., & Kirwan, J. P. (1987). Effect of reduced training on muscular strength and endurance in competitive swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports, 19, 486-490.

  9. SWIMMING AFFECTS GROWTH IN A SPECIFIC WAY

    Benefice, E., Mercier, J., Guerin, M. J., & Prefaut, C. (1990). Differences in aerobic and anthropometric characteristics between peripubertal and non-swimmers. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 11, 456-460.

  10. SWIMMING ENDURANCE IMPROVES UP TO A POINT AND THEN NO MORE

    Costill, D. L., Thomas, R., Robergs, R. A., Pascoe, D., Lambert, C., Barr, S., & Fink, W. J. (1991). Adaptations to swimming training: influence of training volume. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 23, 371-377.

  11. RUNNING AND SWIMMING HEART RATES

    DiCarlo, L. J., Sparling, P. B., Millard-Stafford, M. L., & Rupp, J. C. (1991). Peak heart rates during maximal running and swimming: implications for exercise prescription. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 12, 309-312.

  12. WINGATE ANAEROBIC ARM TEST COULD BE USED FOR SWIMMING

    Hawley, J. A., & Williams, M. M. (1991). Relationship between upper body anaerobic power and freestyle swimming performance. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 12, 1-5.

  13. A CONTRIVED LABORATORY TEST FOR SWIMMING PHYSIOLOGY

    Kimura, Y., Yeater, R. A., & Martin, R. B. (1990). Simulated swimming: a useful tool for evaluating the VO2max in the laboratory. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 24, 201-206.

  14. HORMONES AND METABOLIC INDICATORS ARE NOT INDICATORS FOR SWIMMING WORK CAPACITY

    Kirwan, J. P., Costill, D. L., Flynn, M. G., Mitchell, J. B., Fink, W. J., Neufer, P. D., & Houmard, J. A. (1988). Physiological response to successive days of intense training in competitive swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports Medicine, 20, 255-259.

  15. LUNG FUNCTIONS IN VARSITY SWIMMERS

    Miller, R. L., Robison, E., McCloskey, J. B., & Picken, J. (1989). Pulmonary diffusing capacity as a predictor of performance in competitive swimming. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 29, 91-96.

  16. JET-LAG AND SWIMMING PERFORMANCE

    O'Connor, P. J., Morgan, W. P., Koltyn, K. F., Raglan, J. S., Turner, J. G., & Kalin, N. H. (1991). Air travel across four time zones in college swimmers. Journal of Applied Physiology, 70,756-763.

  17. INCREASED SWIMMING INTENSITY AFFECTS KIDNEY FUNCTION

    Poortmans, J. R., Engels, M.-F., Sellier, M., & Leclearcq, R. (1991). Urine protein excretion and swimming events. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 23, 831-825.

  18. CIRCADIAN RHYTHM AFFECTS SWIMMING POWER OUTPUT

    Reilly, T., & Marshall, S. (1991). Circadian rhythms in power output on a swim bench. Journal of Swimming Research, 7, 11-13.

  19. LACTATE MEASURES ARE USELESS IN SWIMMING

    Rushall, B. S. (1991). The lactate debate - one more time. Journal of the Australian Swim Coaches' Association, 8(3), 8-12.

  20. ONE TRAINING PROGRAM PRODUCES A WIDE VARIETY OF ADAPTATIONS WITHIN A GROUP

    Howat, R. C., & Robson, M. W. (June, 1992). Heartache or heartbreak. The Swimming Times, 35-37.

  21. QUESTIONS CONCERNING TESTING SWIMMERS' PHYSIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS

    Rohrs, D. M., Mayhew, J. L., Arabas, M. S., & Shelton, M. (1990). The relationship between seven anaerobic tests and swim performance. Journal of Swimming Research, 6(4), 15-19.

  22. PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASURES ARE NOT PARTICULARLY SENSITIVE FOR TRAINED SWIMMERS

    Montpetit, R., Duvallet, A., Serveth, J. P., & Cazorla, G. (1981). Stability of VO2max during a 3-month intensive training period in elite swimmers. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Association of Sport Sciences, Halifax.

  23. DETRAINING IN SWIMMING

    Costill, D., Fink, W., Hargreaves, M., King, D., Thomas, R., & Fielding, R. (1984). Metabolic characteristics of skeletal muscle during detraining from competitive swimming. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 17, 339-342.

  24. SWIMMING TRAINING SHOULD BE SPECIFIC

    Payne, W. R., & Lemon, P. W. (1982, October). Metabolic comparison of tethered and simulated swimming ergometer exercise. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Association of Sports Sciences, Victoria.

  25. LACTATE MEASURES DIFFER BETWEEN GENDERS

    Bonifazi, M., Martelli, G., Marugo, L., Sardella, F., & Carli, G. (1993). Blood lactate accumulation in top level swimmers following competition. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 33, 13-18.

  26. YOUNG AGE-GROUP TRAINING SHOULD EMPHASIZE AEROBIC WORK

    Mercier, J., Vago, P., Ramonatxo, M., Bauer, C., & Prefaut, C. (1987). Effect of aerobic training quantity on the VO2max of circumpubertal swimmers. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 8, 26-30.

  27. A STEP-TEST GIVES A ROUGH PREDICTION OF A PROTOCOL-DEPENDENT MEASURE

    Barber, J. W., Williford, H. N., Duey, W. J., Pieri, S. R., & Barksdale, J. (1997). Validation of the T-30 and swimming step test in adolescent competitive swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29(5), Supplement abstract 289.

  28. TALENTED VERSUS LESS TALENTED PERFORMERS

    Troup, J. P. (Ed.). (1990). Energy contributions of competitive freestyle events. In International Center for Aquatic Research annual: Studies by the International Center for Aquatic Research 1989-90. Colorado Springs: United States Swimming Press.

  29. TESTING FOR TESTING SAKE

    Rushall thoughts, 1996.

  30. CRITICAL VELOCITY PREDICTS SWIMMING PERFORMANCE IN FEMALES

    Day, Y. J., & Lin, J. C. (1996). Critical velocity as a predictor of female front crawl swimming performance. Medicine and Science in Exercise and Sports, 28(5), Supplement abstract 940.

  31. POWER RACK MEASURES RELATED TO 25-YD SPRINTS IN FEMALES

    Boelk, A. G., Norton, J. P, Freeman, J. K., & Walker, A. J. (1997). Relationship of swimming power to sprint freestyle performance in females. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29(5), Supplement abstract 1255.

  32. RESPONSE TO HOT AND COLD SWIMMING ENVIRONMENTS

    Neilsen, B. (1977). Physiology of thermoregulation during swimming. In B. Eriksson & B. Furberg (Eds.), Swimming Medicine IV - Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress on Swimming Medicine. Baltimore, MD: University Park Press.

  33. EFFECTS OF SWIMMING ON ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASURES AND FAT ACCUMULATION

    Avlonitou, E., Georgiou, E., Douskas, G., & Louizi, A. (1997). Estimation of body composition in competitive swimmers by means of three different techniques. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 18, 363-368.

  34. SWIMMING MUSCLE POWER MODERATELY RELATED TO 50-m SPRINT SPEED

    Hawley, J. A., Williams, M. M., Vickovic, M. M., & Handcock, P. J. (1992). Muscle power predicts freestyle swimming performance. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 26, 151-155.

  35. SWIMMING USES MORE CARBOHYDRATE FOR ENERGY THAN RUNNING

    Flynn, M. G., Costill, D. L., Kirwan, J. P., Mitchell, J. B., Houmard, J. A., Fink, W. J., Beltz, J. D., & D'Acquisto, L. J. (1990). Fat storage in athletes: Metabolic and hormonal responses to swimming and running. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 11, 433-440.

  36. BLOOD FACTORS NOT ASSOCIATED WITH RESPONSES TO INTENSIFIED TRAINING

    Mackinnon, L. T., Hooper, S. L., Jones, S., Gordon, R. D., & Bachmann, A. W. (1997). Hormonal, immunological, and hematological responses to intensified training in elite swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29, 1637-1654.

  37. ALTITUDE RESIDENTS IMPROVE TIMES WHEN THEY COMPETE AT SEA-LEVEL

    D'Acquisto, L. J., Tran, Z. V., Jackson, C. G. R., & Troup, J. P (1996). Energy release during altitude and acute simulated sea level exposure in altitude acclimatized/trained swimmers. In J. P. Troup, A. P. Hollander, D. Strasse, S. W. Trappe, J. M. Cappaert, & T. A. Trappe (Eds.), Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming VII (pp. 140-145). London: E & FN Spon.

  38. SPORT PARTICIPATION AFFECTS BONE DENSITY IN WOMEN

    Emslander, H. C., Sinaki, M., Muhs, J. M., Chao, E. Y., Wahner, H. W., Bryant S C., Riggs, B. L.,& Eastell, R. (1998). Bone mass and muscle strength in female college athletes (runners and swimmers). Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 73(12), 1151-1160.

  39. BLOOD FACTORS RELATED TO POST-TAPER SWIMMING PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENTS

    Mujika, I., Padilla, S., Geyssantm, A., & Chatard, J.C. (1998). Hematological responses to training and taper in competitive swimmers: relationships with performance. Archives of Physiological Biochemistry, 105(4), 379-385.

  40. SWIMMING MOVEMENT PATTERNS ARE VELOCITY SPECIFIC

    Rouard, A.H., Billat, R.P., Deschodt, V., & Clarys, J.P. (1977). Muscular activations during repetitions of sculling movements up to exhaustion in swimming. Archives of Physiological Biochemistry, 105(7), 655-662.

  41. VENTRICULAR STRUCTURE NOT ALTERED BY SHORT-TERM ALTITUDE TRAINING

    Haykowsky, M.J., Smith, D.J., Malley, L., Norris, S.R., & Smith, E.R. (1998). Effects of short-term altitude training and tapering on left ventricular morphology in elite swimmers. Canadian Journal of Cardiology, 14(5), 678-681.

  42. CREATINE SUPPLEMENTATION PROMOTES SUSTAINING SPRINT SET QUALITY IN SWIMMERS

    Peyrebrune, M.C., Nevill, M.E., Donaldson, F.J., & Cosford, D.J. (1998). The effects of oral creatine supplementation on performance in single and repeated sprint swimming. Journal of Sports Science, 16(3), 271-279.

  43. TYPE II FIBERS (POWER) ARE MOST AFFECTED BY A TAPER

    Trappe, S., Costill, D., Lee, G., & Thomas, R. (1998). Effect of swim taper on human single muscle fiber contractile properties. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30(5), Supplement abstract 220.

  44. Lapeak AND AOD NOT RELATED TO 50 OR 500-YD PERFORMANCES

    Zoeller, R. F., Nagle, E. F., Moyna, N. M., Goss, F. L., Lephart, S. M., & Robertson, R. J. (1998). Anaerobic indices of freestyle swimming performance in trained adult female swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30(5), Supplement abstract 280.

  45. BLOOD AND HORMONAL FACTORS NOT ASSOCIATED WITH ELITE FEMALE TRAINING RESPONSES

    VanHeest, J. L., & Ratliff, K. (1998). Hematological and hormonal changes in elite female swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30(5), Supplement abstract 986.

  46. SERUM GROWTH FACTORS CHANGE WITH TRAINING BUT IN NO USEFUL WAY

    Hickson, R. C., Koziris, L. P., Chatterton, R. T., Groseth, R. T., Christie, J, M., & Unterman, T. G. (1998). Serum insluin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein (BP) -1, -3 adaptations to training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30(5), Supplement abstract 989.

  47. PLASMA INSULIN AND LACTATE MIGHT BE SENSITIVE TO OVERTRAINING

    Oh, J. K., Yoo, R. R., Cho, J. Y., & Cho, Y. E. (1998). Lactate levels and hormonal responses to excessive training in elite swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30(5), Supplement abstract 1554.

  48. SWIMMERS SWEAT DIFFERENTLY TO LAND-TRAINED ATHLETES

    Taimura, A., Sugawara, M., Yamauchi, M., Lee, J. B., Matsumoto, T., & Kosaka, M. (1998). Thermal sweating responses in swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30(5), Supplement abstract 1613.

  49. GLUTAMINE IS NOT ASSOCIATED WITH OVERTRAINING

    Koziris, L. P., Hickson, R. C., Chatterton Jr., R. T., Groseth, R. T., Christie, J. M., Osborne, D. F., & Karl, I. E. (1999). Progressive reductions in blood glutamine levels and improved performance occur with competitive swim training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31(5), Supplement abstract 278.

  50. T-10 TEST YIELDS MAXIMAL AEROBIC SWIMMING VELOCITY

    Matsunami, M., Taguchi, M., Taimura, A., Suga, M., & Taba, S. (1999). Relationship among different performance tests to estimate maximal aerobic swimming speed. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31(5), Supplement abstract 376.

  51. A 400-m TIME TRIAL IS THE BEST PREDICTOR OF 400-m SWIMMING TIME

    Guglielmo, L. G., & Denadai, B. S. (1999). Assessment of anaerobic threshold and performance of swimmers in crawl sprints of 400m. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31(5), Supplement abstract 414.

  52. CREATINE SUPPLEMENTATION EXTENDS THE VOLUME OF HIGH-QUALITY INTERVAL TRAINING

    Ricketts, J. C., & Zachweija, J. J. (1999). Effects of creatine supplementation on swim power. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31(5), Supplement abstract 1243.

  53. CRITICAL POWER: MUCH ADO ABOUT LITTLE

    Kokubun, E., Pessoa-Filho, D. M., & Sibuya, C. Y. (1999). Determination of critical power in swimming. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31(5), Supplement abstract 1248.

  54. ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD IN SWIMMING IS PROTOCOL AND CRITERION DEPENDENT

    Almeidal, A. G., Gobatto, C. A., Lenta, C., & Kokubun, E. (1999). Influences of swimming test distance in the anaerobic threshold determination and blood lactate levels. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31(5), Supplement abstract 1253.

  55. PHOSPHAGEN HP (CREATINE + ELECTROLYTES) DID NOT IMPROVE SWIMMING PERFORMANCES

    Renne, D. R., D'Acquisto, L. J., Nethery, V., & Gee, D. (1999). Creatine monohydrate supplementation does not enhance or compromise swimming performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31(5), Supplement abstract 356.

  56. MUSCLE FIBER AND ENERGY USE DIFFER WITHIN SPRINTING DISTANCES

    Ring, S., Mader, A., & Mougious, V. (1999). Plasma ammonia response to sprint swimming. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 39, 128-132.

  57. CREATINE AFFECTS PERFORMANCE ONLY WHEN REST INTERVALS ARE LONG

    Carl, D. L., Alperin, N., Kochendorfer, K., Stieger, J., Andres, F., & Broadley, D. (1999). Effect of oral creatine and caffeine on muscle phosphocreatine resynthesis in competitive swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31(5), Supplement abstract 1283.

  58. CREATINE ONLY HELPS MEN SWIM FASTER OVER 50 YARDS

    Leenders, N., Sherman, W. M., Lamb, D. R., & Nelson, T. E. (1999). Creatine supplementation and swimming performance. International Journal of Sport Nutrition, 9, 251-262.

  59. DIET CHANGES WHEN INGESTING SWEETENED CREATINE

    Scott, K., Renne, Dr. R., D'Acquisto, L. T., Nethery, V., & Gee, D. L. (1999). Carbohydrate containing creatine supplementation alters dietary intake in university swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31(5), Supplement abstract 360.

  60. THE FASTER ONE SWIMS, THE MORE ONE SWEATS

    Taimura, A., Sugawara, M., & Tsuchiya, K. (2000). Influence of water temperature and swimming velocity on body temperature and weight loss during swimming. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(5), Supplement abstract 679.

  61. SWIMMING SPEED TESTS YIELD DIFFERENT LEVELS OF OVERLOAD

    Matsunami, M., Taimura, A., Suga, M., Taba, S., & Taguchi, M. (2000). An effective field test to determine the endurance training speed for competitive swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(5), Supplement abstract 1690.

  62. FACTORS AFFECTING SPRINT SWIMMING DIFFER BETWEEN GENDERS

    Simmons, S. E., Tanner, D. A., & Stager, J. M. (2000). Different determinants of sprint swim performance in male and female competitive swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(5), Supplement abstract 1692.

  63. ENERGY COST OF KICKING FOR STREAMLINE BECOMES LESS AS SWIMMING VELOCITY INCREASES

    Zamparo, P., Capelli, C, Di Nino, A., & Cautero, M. (2000). Energy cost of front crawl at supra maximal speeds and underwater torque in young swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(5), Supplement abstract 1694.

  64. ANAEROBIC ENERGY HARDLY COMPROMISED AT ALTITUDE

    Ogita, F., & Tabata, I. (2000). Aerobic and anaerobic energy release during supramaximal swimming at different levels of hypobaric hypoxia. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(5), Supplement abstract 1699.

  65. LACTATE PROFILES ARE NOT RELATED TO COMPETITIVE SWIMMING PERFORMANCES

    Pyne, D. B., Lee, H., & Swanwick, K. M. (2001). Monitoring the lactate threshold in world-ranked swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33, 291-297.

  66. INCREASED VITAL CAPACITY RESULTS FROM SWIMMING TRAINING

    Dean, C. M., Adams, K. J., Hodgkins, T. D., Durham, M. P., Ritch, D. M., & Swank, A. M. (2001). Changes in vital capacity for swimmers and nordic skiers over 180 days in-season training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(5), Supplement abstract 320.

  67. CREATINE ONLY AFFECTS SINGLE SPRINT EFFORTS IN SWIMMING

    Selsby, J. T., Beckett, K. D., Devor, S. T., & Kern, M. (2001). Swim performance following creatine supplementation. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(5), Supplement abstract 1159.

  68. TRAINING REGRESSION IN SWIMMERS NOT RELATED TO PARTICULAR BIOLOGICAL FACTORS

    Rowbottom, D., Maw, G., Raspotnik, L., Morley, E., & Hamilton, E. (2001). Biological variables to assist in fatigue management are individualized in highly trained swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(5), Supplement abstract 1920.

  69. EVENING PERFORMANCES ARE BETTER THAN MORNING PERFORMANCES

    Arnett, M. G. (2001). Effects of prolonged and reduced warm-ups on diurnal variation in body temperature and swim performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(5), Supplement abstract 893.

  70. PRE-SWIM GLUCOSE SUPPLEMENTATION DOES NOT AFFECT ENDURANCE-SWIMMING PERFORMANCE

    Langill, R. H., Smith, G. J., & Rhodes, E. C. (2001). The effect of pre-exercise glucose ingestion on performance during prolonged swimming. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(5), Supplement abstract 937.

  71. LEG ANAEROBIC FUNCTION IS MODERATELY RELATED TO SPRINT SWIMMING

    Andrade, R. M., Figueira, A. J., Lauro, F. A., Velhote, F. B., Alves, L. L., & Pinheiro, D. S. (2001). Influence of anaerobic muscle power on swimming performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(5), Supplement abstract 1826.

  72. FEMALE SWIMMERS NEED A LARGE AMOUNT OF ENERGY INTAKE WHEN IN HEAVY TRAINING

    Trappe, T. A., Gastaldelli, A., Jozsi, A. C., Troup, J. P., & Wolfe, R. P. (1997). Energy expenditure of swimmers during high volume training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29, 950-954.

  73. ONLY SOME ATHLETES MIGHT BENEFIT FROM PRE-EXERCISE GLUCOSE INGESTION

    Smith, G. J., Rhodes, E. C., & Langill, R. H. (2002). The effect of pre-exercise glucose ingestion on performance during prolonged swimming. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 12, 136-144.

  74. WEIGHT-BEARING ACTIVITIES ACCELERATE BONE ACCRUAL IN ADOLESCENT FEMALES

    Bellew, J. W., Gehrig, L., & Gehrig, G. (2002). A comparison of bone mineral density in adolescent female weight lifters, swimmers, and tennis players. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 781.

  75. CREATINE SUPPLEMENTATION DOES NOT IMPROVE SPRINT SWIMMING

    Mendes, R. R., & Tirapegui, J. (2002). Effect of creatine supplementation on supramaximal exercise and body composition of university swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), Supplement abstract 806.

  76. TRIATHLETES SHOULD DRAFT IN SWIMMING SO THAT CYCLING IS BETTER

    Delextrat, A., Tricot, V., Bernard, T., Vercruyssen, F., Hausswwirth, C., & Brisswalter, J. (2003). Drafting during swimming improves efficiency during subsequent cycling. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35, 1612-1619.

  77. BODYSUITS INCREASE THERMAL REACTIONS TO SWIMMING

    Taimura, A., Matsunami, M., & Sugawara, M. (2003). Thermal responses to swimming: The influence of bodysuits. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 147.

  78. WATERPROOF SWIM CAPS HEAT UP SWIMMERS

    Matsunami, M., Taimura, A., & Sugawara, M. (2003). Thermal responses in swimming is affected by the material of swim caps. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 148.

  79. HOT WATER REDUCES SWIMMING PERFORMANCE

    Armstrong, D. W., Herzig, T. C., Keyser, D. O., Pruschki, D., & Deuswter, P. A. (2003). Correlates of peak body temperature during warm water (37°C) swimming. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 154.

  80. ONLY TESTS IN THE TAPER PHASE ARE RELATED TO FINAL SWIMMING PERFORMANCES

    Anderson, M. E., Hopkins, W. G., Roberts, A. D., & Pyne, D. B. (2003). Monitoring long-term changes in test and competitive performance in elite swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 194.

  81. POST-RACE LACTATES IMPROVE ACROSS A SWIMMING SEASON

    Northius, M. E., Wicklund, H., & Patnott, J. R. (2003). Blood lactate changes in collegiate swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1455.

  82. SODIUM BICARBONATE ENHANCES SWIMMING PERFORMANCES BUT BE CAREFUL

    Triplett-McBride, T., Bowman, S. A., Pein, R. L., & Foster, C. C. (2003). Effects of different dosages of sodium bicarbonate on swimming performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1494.

  83. LEFT VENTRICULAR SIZE IS INCREASED IN ADOLESCENT SWIMMERS

    Petkowicz, R. O., Horowitz, E. S., & Meyer, F. (2003). Left ventricular structure in male adolescent swimmers athletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1763.

  84. POORLY PERFORMING FEMALE SWIMMERS MIGHT HAVE A THYROID PROBLEM

    VanHeest, J. L., Mahoney, C. E., Cappaert, J. M., Hill, K. W., De Souza, M. J., & Rodgers, C. D. (2003). Induction of low T3 syndrome in female swimmers during a competitive season. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 1829.

  85. SWIMMING ECONOMY IS INFERIOR IN CHILDREN WHEN COMPARED TO ADULTS

    Kjendie, P. L., Stallman, R. K., & Stray-Gundersen, J. (2003). Swimming economy should be normalized to body length. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), Supplement abstract 117.

  86. CRITICAL VELOCITY CAN BE DETERMINED IN PRE-PUBERTAL MALES

    Angus, C., Kendall, R., & Beneke, R. (2004). Assessment of critical velocity and blood lactate in pre-pubertal swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 824.

  87. FERRITIN IS NEEDED BY ADOLESCENT SWIMMERS

    Abdallah, F., Lima, F. R., & Pinto, A. L. (2004). Hematological indices and iron status in adolescent competitive swimmers of both sexes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 2049.

  88. HYPOXIA (ALTITUDE) DEPRESSES SWIMMING PERFORMANCE

    Toussaint, H. M., Truijens, M. J., van Asseldone, E., & Levine, B. D. (2004). Hypoxic training in well-trained swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 2311.

  89. INTERMITTENT HYPOXIA DOES NOT IMPROVE VENTILATION IN TRAINING ATHLETES

    Townsend, N. E., Gore, C. J., Truijens, M. J., Rodriguez, F. A., Stray-Gundersen, J., & Levine, B. D. (2004). Ventilatory acclimatization to intermittent hypoxia in well-trained runners and swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 2315.

  90. INTERMITTENT HYPOXIA DOES NOT IMPROVE PERFORMANCE ECONOMY IN TRAINING ATHLETES

    Truijens, M. J., Rodriguez, F. A., Palmer, D., Townsend, N. E., Gore, C. J., Stray-Gundersen, J., & Levine, B. J. (2004). The effect of intermittent hypobaric hypoxic exposure on economy in runners and swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 2318.

  91. INTERMITTENT HYPOXIA DOES NOT IMPROVE PERFORMANCE IN TRAINING ATHLETES

    Rodriguez, F. A., Truijens, M. J., Townsend, N. E., Martini, E. R., Stray-Gundersen, J., Gore, C. J., & Levine, B. D. (2004). Effects of four weeks of intermittent hypobaric hypoxia on sea level running and swimming performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), Supplement abstract 2319.

  92. LACTATE THRESHOLD RECOVERY SWIMMING IS BEST

    Weltman, A. L., Greenwood, J. D., Moses, E. Bernardino, M., & Gaesser, G. A. (2005). Effects of exercise recovery intensity on blood lactate disappearance and subsequent swimming performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37(5), Supplement abstract 447.

  93. FLUID REPLENISHMENT DURING SWIMMING TRAINING MAINTAINS BODY FLUID BALANCE

    Henkin, S. D., Silveira, M. M., Lannerhirt, H., Meyer, F., & Kruel, L. F. (2005). Body fluid balance of competitive male swimmers during a training session. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37(5), Supplement abstract 549.

  94. CAFFEINE IMPROVES 50-m SWIM PERFORMANCE IN SOME SWIMMERS

    Hill, M. R. (2006). Low dose caffeine use to improve 50-meter swimming performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1334.

  95. LOW-DOSE CAFFEINE DOES NOT IMPROVE SPRINT SWIMMING BUT DOES AFFECT SLEEP

    Burke, L. M., Anderson, M. E., & Pyne, D. B. (2006). Low dose caffeine intake and sprint performance in swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1330.

  96. BODYSUITS INCREASE THERMAL SENSATIONS IN DISTANCE SWIMMING

    Taimura, A., & Matsunami, M. (2006). Effect of swimsuits and water temperature on thermal responses during submaximal swimming. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 2055.

  97. AGE-RELATED SWIMMING PERFORMANCE DECLINE IS ASSOCIATED WITH A DECLINE IN VO2max NOT ECONOMY

    Boggs, G. W., Dickinson, J. M., Nethery, V. M., Horsley, J., & D'Acquisto, L. J. (2006). Physiological comparison of younger and older trained male swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1557.

  98. CRITICAL VELOCITY DECLINES WITH AGE IN MASTER SWIMMERS

    Cachel, H., & daSilva, S. G. (20006). Changes in critical velocity according to age in swimming master athletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1572.

  99. SOME HORMONE CONCENTRATIONS ARE AFFECTED BY A TAPER IN SWIMMING

    Santhiago, V., da Silva, A. D., & Gobatto, C. A. (2006). Effects of taper on some hormonal and biochemical overtraining markers in high performance swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 1584.

  100. SODIUM BICARBONATE INGESTION IMPROVES 200 m SWIMMING PERFORMANCE

    Peyrebrunek, M. C., Lindh, A., Ingham, S., & Folland, J. (2007). Sodium bicarbonate supplementation improves 200 m freestyle performance in elite male swimmers. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number, 1462.

  101. LACTATE TEST RESULTS NEED TO BE CONSIDERED WITH OTHER FACTORS WHEN CONSIDERING THE STATUS OF SWIMMERS

    Thompson, K. G., Garland, S. W., & Lothia, F. (2006). Interpretation of the physiological monitoring of an international swimmer. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 1, 117-124.

  102. NO RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TREADMILL AND SWIMMING TEST RESULTS

    Nagle, E. F., Robertson, R. J., Chomentowski, P. J., & McLaughlin, K. J. (2006). Absence of relation between 12-Minute and 500-yard swim and treadmill determined maximal aerobic power. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), Supplement abstract 2674.

  103. PROTEIN/CARBOHYDRATE GEL IS BENEFICIAL FOR MAINTAINING TRAINING PERFORMANCES

    Seifert, J. G., & McKenzie, R. (2007). A carbohydrate/protein energy gel improves swimming performance in collegiate swimmers. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number, 2061.

  104. CREATINE SUPPLEMENTATION DOES NOT ENHANCE SPRINT-SWIMMING PERFORMANCE

    Mendes, R. R., & Tirapegui, J. (2007). Acute creatine supplementation does not improve performance of elite and amateur swimmers. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number, 702.

  105. SODIUM BICARBONATE REDUCES PERFORMANCE DROP-OFF BETWEEN REPEATED 200-m FREESTYLE SWIMS

    Pruscino, C. L., Ross, M. L., Gregory, A., Savage, B., & Troy, Flanagan. (2008). Effects of sodium bicarbonate, caffeine, and their combination on repeated 200-m freestyle performance. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 18, 116-131.

  106. LACTATE MORE SENSITIVE TO TRAINING CHANGES THAN HEART RATE

    Turner, A., Smith, T., & Coleman, S. G. (2008). Use of an audio-paced incremental swimming test in young national-level swimmers. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 3, 68-70.

  107. STROKE RATE AFFECTS LACTATE LEVELS AND SWIMMING AID USED AFFECTS STROKE LENGTH

    Zafiriadis, S., Loutpos, D., Valkoumas, I., & Tsalis, G. (2007). The effect of backstroke swimming using "paddles" and "swim chute" in stroke parameters and in the concentration of lactic acid. Inquiries in Sport and Physical Education, 5, 437-445.

  108. WATER TEMPERATURE AND SWIMMING PERFORMANCE

    Mougios, V., & Deligiannis, A. (1993). Effect of water temperature on performance, lactate production and heart rate at swimming of maximal and submaximal intensity. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 33, 27-33.

  109. ERYTHROPOIETIN RESPONSE TO ALTITUDE NOT ASSOCIATED WITH HEMOGLOBIN CHANGES IN TRAINED ATHLETES

    Friedmann, B., Frese, F., Menold, E., Kauper, F., Jost, J., & Bartsch, P. (2005). Individual variation in the erythropoietic response to altitude training in elite junior swimmers. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 39(3), 148-153.

  110. FEMALE COLLEGE SWIMMERS HAVE LOW NUTRIENT INTAKES

    Battista, R. A., Dodge, C., & Foster, C. (2008). Changes during a competitive season in physical characteristics and caloric intake in female collegiate swimmers. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis, Presentation Number, 2155.

  111. MALE SWIMMERS HAVE HIGHER LEVELS OF ANAEROBIC POWER AND CAPACITY THAN FEMALES

    Paradisis, G., Zacharogiannis, E., & Psycharakis, S. (2008). Anaerobic power and capacity in competitive swimmers. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis, Presentation Number, 2118.

  112. SODIUM BICARBONATE SUPPLEMENTATION IMPROVES 200-m FREESTYLE TIMES

    Lindh, A. M., Peyrebrune, M. C., Ingham, S. A., Bailey, D. M., & Folland, J. P. (2008). Sodium bicarbonate improves swimming performance. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 29, 519-523.

  113. VARIOUS PHYSIOLOGICAL THRESHOLDS MOSTLY MEASURE DIFFERENT FACTORS IN SWIMMERS

    Johnson, J. K., Battista, R. A., Pein, R., Dodge, C., & Foster, C. (2009). Comparison of monitoring tools for training intensity in swimmers. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. Presentation Number 1839.

  114. NCAA III FEMALE SWIMMERS ARE DEFICIENT IN DIETARY PRACTICES

    Holmes, K., Quale, L., Brand, L., Sparby, W., & Blegen, M. (2009). Pre-season nutritional status of NCAA Division III female swimmers. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. Presentation Number 2405.

  115. EVALUATION OF BODY MASS IS DUBIOUS

    Kjendlie, P.-L., Alves, F., Berthelsen, A., Caspersen, C., Eik, M., Marinho, D., Pakozdi, C., Rouboa, A., Silva, A. J., & Vilas-Boas, J.-P. (2009). Added mass of human swimmers: A comparison of computational and experimental results. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. Presentation Number 2561.

  116. SWIMMERS' CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS COULD BE QUITE SUBTLE

    Kine, C. E., Devlin, T. M., Zielinski, M. R., Moore, T. A., Durstine, J. L., Davis, J. M., & Youngstedt, S. D. (2009). Time of habitual training does not alter circadian rhythm of swim performance. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. Presentation Number 2747.

  117. SEVEN DAYS OF LIVE-HIGH/TRAIN-LOW EXPOSURE DOES NOT CHANGE IMPORTANT PHYSIOLOGICAL OR PERFORMANCE FACTORS

    Ratz, I. K., Coggan, A. R., & McGregor, S. J. (2009). Anaerobic and performance adaptations to a “live high-train low” approach using simulated altitude exposure. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. Presentation Number 739.

  118. ONLY THE FAST VO2 KINETICS COMPONENT IS ASSOCIATED WITH SWIMMING PERFORMANCE

    Alves, F., Reis, J., Vleck, V., Bruno, P., & Millet, G. (2009). Oxygen uptake kinetics in heavy intensity exercise and endurance performance in swimmers. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. Presentation Number 978.

  119. CREATINE SUPPLEMENTATION DOES NOT IMPROVE SPRINT PERFORMANCES IN HIGHLY-TRAINED SWIMMERS

    Mujika, I., Chatard, J. C., Lacoste, L., Barale, F., & Geyssant, A. (1996). Creatine supplementation does not improve sprint performance in competitive swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 28, 1435-1441.

  120. LACTATE THRESHOLD VELOCITY BEST EFFORT LEVEL FOR POST-SWIM RECOVERY

    Greenwood, J. D., Moses, G. E., Bernardino, F. M., Gaesser, G. A., & Weltman, A. (2008). Intensity of exercise recovery, blood lactate disappearance, and subsequent swimming performance. Journal of Sports Science, 26, 29-34.

  121. PASSIVE RECOVERY IS BETTER BETWEEN REPEATED SPRINT SWIMS

    Toubekis, A. G., Douda, H. T., & Tokmakidis, S. P. (2005). Influence of different rest intervals during active or passive recovery on repeated sprint swimming performance. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 93, 694-700.

  122. SWIMMING POOLS AND CHILDHOOD ASTHMA: SUGGESTIVE BUT NOT CONCLUSIVE ASSOCIATION

    Clifford, P. W., Richardson, S. D., Nemery, B., Aggazzotti, G., Baraldi, E., Blatchley, E. R., Blount, B. C., Carlsen, K., Eggleston, P. A., Frimmel, F. H., Goodman, M., Gordon, G., Grinshpun, S. A., Heederik, D., Kogevinas, M., LaKind, J. S., Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J., Piper, F. C., & Sattar S. A. (2009). Childhood asthma and environmental exposures at swimming pools: State of the science and research recommendations. Environmental Health Perspectives, 117, 500-507.

  123. PERCENTAGE OF MEAN BLOOD LACTATE DECREASE COULD BE A TRAINING RESPONSE MARKER

    Pelayo, P., Mujika, I., Sidney, M., & Chatard, J. C. (1996). Blood lactate recovery measurements, training, and performance during a 23-week period of competitive swimming. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 74, 107-113.

  124. SOME MEASURES MIGHT PREDICT TAPERED SWIMMING PERFORMANCES

    Hooper, S. L., Mackinnon, L. T., & Howard, A. (1999). Physiological and psychometric variables for monitoring recovery during tapering for major competition. Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise, 31, 1205-1210.

  125. TRAINING BLOOD FACTORS ARE NOT ASSOCIATED WITH EVENTUAL COMPETITION MEASURES

    Bonifazi, M., Sardella, F., & Lupo, C. (2000). Preparatory versus main competitions: differences in performances, lactate responses and pre-competition plasma cortisol concentrations in elite male swimmers. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 82, 368-373.

  126. BLOOD LACTATE REMOVAL IS SIMILAR ACROSS AGE-GROUPS

    Reaburn, P., & Mackinnon, L. (1990). Blood lactate responses in older swimmers during active and passive recovery following maximal sprint swimming. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 61, 246-250.

  127. ONLY TRAINED INDIVIDUALS' PERFORMANCES BENEFIT FROM CAFFEINE INGESTION

    Collomp, K., Ahmaidi, S., Chatard, J. C., Audran, M., & Préfaut, C. (1992). Benefits of caffeine ingestion on sprint performance in trained and untrained swimmers. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 64, 377-380.

  128. CARBOHYDRATE INGESTION AFFECTS SWIMMING PERFORMANCES

    Reilly, T., & Woodbridge, V. (1999). Effects of moderate dietary manipulations on swim performance and on blood lactate-swimming velocity curves. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 20, 93-97.

  129. INTENSE TRAINING CHANGES STROKE CHARACTERISTICS AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES

    Ribeiro, L. F., Lima, M. C., & Gobatto, C. A. (2008). Changes in physiological and stroking parameters during interval swims at the slope of the d-t relationship. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, December 30, [E-publication].

  130. MAXIMAL LACTATE STEADY STATE SWIMMING SPEED IS THE VELOCITY AT WHICH PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOMECHANICAL FACTORS CHANGE

    Dekerle, J., Nesi, X., Lefevre, T., Depretz, S., Sidney, M., Marchand, F. H., & Pelayo, P. (2005). Stroking parameters in front crawl swimming and maximal lactate steady state speed. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 26, 53-58.

  131. CREATINE SUPPLEMENTATION IMPROVES SWIMMERS' LEG WORK

    Juhász, I., Györe, I., Csende, Z., Rácz, L., & Tihanyi, J. (2009). Creatine supplementation improves the anaerobic performance of elite junior fin swimmers. ACTA Physiologica Hungarica, 96, 325-336.

  132. CREATINE SUPPLEMENTATION DOES NOT IMPROVE SPRINT SWIMMING

    Dawson, B., Vladich, T., & Blanksby, B. A. (2002). Effects of four weeks of creatine supplementation in junior swimmers on freestyle sprint and swim bench performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 16, 485-490.

  133. CREATINE SUPPLEMENTATION IMPROVES SPRINT REPETITIONS IN SWIMMERS

    Grindstaff, P. D., Kreider, R., Bishop, R., Wilson, M., Wood, L., Alexander, C., & Almada, A. (1997). Effects of creatine supplementation on repetitive sprint performance and body composition in competitive swimmers. International Journal of Sports Nutrition, 7, 330-346.

  134. CREATINE SUPPLEMENTATION IMPROVES SPRINT SWIMMING PERFORMANCES

    Selsby, J. T., Beckett, K. D., Kern, M., Devor, S. T. (2003). Swim performance following creatine supplementation in Division III athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 17, 421-424.

  135. ONLY A SUBSET OF OXYGEN UPTAKE KINETICS IS RELATED TO SWIMMING ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE

    Reis, J., Alves, F., Vleck, V., Bruno, P., & Millet, G. P. (2009). Correlation between oxygen uptake kinetics in severe intensity swimming and endurance performance. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

  136. LONG-TERM INTENSIVE TRAINING REDUCES IMMUNE RESPONSE CAPABILITIES EARLY IN THE TRAINING SEASON

    Teixeira, A. M., Rama, L., Morgado, J. M., Azevedo, S., Matos, A., Henriques, A., Rosada, F., & Alves, F. (2009). Cytokine production by monocytes, but not neutrophils, is hampered by long-term intensive training in elite swimmers. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

  137. THE RATE WITH WHICH GLYCOLYTIC ANAEROBIC WORK IS PERFORMED CHANGES THE AEROBIC CONTRIBUTIONS TO PERFORMANCE

    Alves, F., Reis, J., Bruno, P. M., & Vleck, V. (June 03, 2010). Distance-time modeling and oxygen uptake kinetics in swimming. Presentation 2392 at the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; June 2-5.

  138. BREASTSTROKE PERFORMANCES ARE LIMITED BY A SET PHYSIOLOGICAL CAPACITY

    Thompson, K. G., Gibson, A., & Howatson, G. (June 3, 2009). Breaststroke swimming at a constant rate. Presentation 2391 at the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; June 2-5.

  139. CRITICAL VELOCITY IS DIFFERENT TO MAXIMAL LACTATE STEADY STATE VELOCITY

    Espada, M. A., & Alves, F. B. (2010). Critical velocity and the velocity at maximal lactate steady state in swimming. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  140. POST-RACE BLOOD LACTATE LEVELS ARE SIMILAR BETWEEN GENDERS AND NOT RELATED TO AGE

    Wells, G. D., Falenchuk, O., Gannon, G., & Vescovi, J. D. (2010). Factors affecting blood lactate accumulation and clearance in elite competitive swimmers during competition. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  141. CRITICAL SWIMMING SPEED/VELOCITY A RELATIVELY USELESS CONCEPT

    Zacca, R., & Castro, F. (2010). Critical swimming speed obtained by the 200-400 meters model in young swimmers. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  142. SODIUM BICARBONATE INGESTION ENHANCES ENDURANCE SWIMMING PERFORMANCE

    Gleadall-Sidall, D. O., Midgley, A. W., & Siegler, J. C. (June 03, 2010). Sodium bicarbonate ingestion and repeated swim sprint performance. Presentation 1923 at the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; June 2-5.

  143. VO2max IS UNRELATED TO 200-m FREESTYLE IN ELITE SWIMMERS

    Pedersen, M. T., Kilen, A., Larsson, T. H., Jřrgensen, M., Rocha, B., & Nordsborg, N. B. (2010). Increased training intensity and reduced volume for 12 weeks has detrimental effects on swimmers' maximal oxygen uptake. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  144. FATIGUE IN A 100-m SWIM INCREASES PROGRESSIVELY THROUGHOUT THE TASK

    Stirn, I., Jarm, T., Kapus, V, & Strojnik, V. (2010). Fatigue analysis of 100 meters all-out front crawl using surface EMG. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  145. SWIMMERS' BREATHING PROBLEMS

    Kristiansen, E., Stensrud, T., & Stadelmann, K. (2010). Bronchial hyper-responsiveness, physiological, and psychological recovery among adolescent swimmers: a preliminary investigation. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  146. SALIVARY CORTISOL MAY BE A MARKER OF HARD TRAINING

    Rama, L., Alves, R., Rosado, F., & Teixeira, A. (2009). Salivary and plasma cortisol and free testosterone during a winter swimming training season. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

  147. DISTANCE-SWIMMING TRAINING PROMOTES INCREASED DIAPHRAGM THICKNESS IN FEMALES

    Carlo, A. C., Sikora, A. T., & Coast, J. R. (June 03, 2010). A comparison of diaphragm thickness in female swimmers, runners, and non-athletes. Presentation 2094 at the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; June 2-5.

  148. VO2peak PREDICTS 200-m SWIMMING PERFORMANCE

    Fernandes, R. J., Sousa, A., Figueiredo, P., Oliveira, N., Oliveira, J., Silva, A. J., Keskinen, K L., Rodriguez, F. A., Machado, L., & Vilas-Boas, J. P. (2010). Oxygen kinetics in a 200-m front crawl maximal swimming effort. Presentation 661 at the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; June 2-5.

  149. LACTATE ACCUMULATION NOT RELATED TO 100 m PERFORMANCE

    Thanopoulos, V., Rozi, G., & Platanou, T. (2010). Lactate concentration comparison between 100 m freestyle and tethered swimming of equal duration. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  150. LONG-DISTANCE SWIMMING EXPLOITS THE SLOW COMPONENT OF AEROBIC KINETICS

    Hellard, P., Houel, N., Avalos, M., Nesi, X., Toussaint, J. F., & Hausswirth, C. (2010). Modeling the slow component in elite long distance swimmers at the velocity associated with lactate threshold. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  151. SLOW COMPONENT OF AEROBICS ONLY STIMULATED BY HEAVY ARDUOUS SWIMMING

    Filho, P., Müller, D., Reis, J., Alves, F., & Denadai, B. S. (2010). Oxygen uptake kinetics around the respiratory compensation point in swimming. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  152. LONG-DURATION INTERVAL TRAINING PRODUCES STEADY-STATE PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES

    Tsalis, G., Toubekis, A., Michailidou, D., Gourgoulis, V., Douda, H., & Tokmakidis, S. (2010). Blood lactate responses during interval training corresponding to critical velocity in different age-group female swimmers. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  153. TETHERED SWIMMING MEASURES ARM-FORCE IMBALANCES

    Toubekis, A., Gourgoulis, V., & Tokmakidis, S. (2010). Tethered swimming as an evaluation tool for arm strength imbalance. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  154. FEMALE DISTANCE AND SPRINT SWIMMERS DIFFER IN HEMATOLOGICAL FACTORS

    Guo, H., Lu, Y., & Stager, J. M. (2010). The difference in red blood cell indices between elite female distance and sprint swimmers. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  155. MUSCULAR TENSION IN THE BODY DOES NOT HELP SWIMMERS' FUNCTION

    Henrich, T. W., Pankey, R.B., & Soukup, G. J. (2010). The impact of tension in abdominal and lumbar musculature in swimmers on ventilatory and cardiovascular functions. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  156. SUDDEN INCREASES IN TRAINING VOLUME PRODUCE CHANGES IN STRESS MARKERS

    Rama, L., Alves, F., & Teixeira, A. M. (2010). Hormonal, immune, autonomic and mood states variation at the initial preparation phase of a winter season, in Portuguese male swimmers. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  157. CRITICAL VELOCITY ESTIMATES MAXIMUM LACTATE STEADY-STATE

    Wakayoshi, K., Shiraki, T, Ogita, F, & Kitajima, M. (2010). Determination and validity of critical velocity in front crawl, arm stroke and leg kick as an index of endurance performance in competitive swimmers. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  158. LONG DISTANCE SWIMMERS DISPLAY A MARKED SLOW-COMPONENT OF OXYGEN UPTAKE

    Hellard, P., Dekerle, J., Nesi, X., Toussaint, J. F., Houel, N., & Hausswirth, C. (2010). Ventilatory and biomechanical response analysis in short vs. long interval training sessions in elite long distance swimmers. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  159. TETHERED SWIMMING TESTS ARE RELEVANT FOR MALES BUT NOT FEMALES

    Hohmann, A., Fehr, U., & Fankel, J. (2010). Diagnosis of swimming technique by fully tethered swimming. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  160. HOW MAXIMUM LACTATE STEADY-STATE IS DETERMINED GOVERNS THE ASSOCIATED VELOCITY OF SWIMMING

    Oliveira, M. F., Caputo, F., Dekerle, J., Denadai, B. S., & Greco, C. C. (2010). Technical and physiological changes during continuous vs. intermittent swims at and above maximal lactate steady state. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 16–19, 2010.

  161. PREPUBESCENT SWIMMERS HAVE DIFFERENT TO NORMAL PULMONARY FUNCTION

    Kojima, K., Wilhite, D. P., Wright, B. V., & Stager, J. M.(2011). Expiratory flow-limitation and resting pulmonary function during maximal exercise in young competitive swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 43(5). Supplement abstract 614.

  162. AEROBIC INDEXES CHANGE AT DIFFERENT RATES AND TIMES IN YOUNG SWIMMERS UNDERGOING INCREMENTAL TRAINING LOADS

    Toubekis, A. G., Tsami, A. P., Smilios, I. G., Douda, H. T., & Tokmakidis, S. P. (2011). Training-induced changes on blood lactate profile and critical velocity in young swimmers. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 25, 153-157.

  163. THERE ARE MINOR LEG STRENGTH DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SYMMETRICAL AND ASYMMETRICAL STROKE SWIMMERS

    Secchi, L. L., Cioiac, E. G., Muratt, M. D., & Grave, J. M. (2011). Isokinetic evaluation in knee muscles elite swimmers: a comparison between symmetric and asymmetric swimming styles. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 43(5). Supplement abstract 1592.

  164. HIGH-INTENSITY SWIMMING PRIMARILY USES ALACTACID AND AEROBIC ENERGY SOURCES

    Fernandes, R. J., Sousa, A., Figueiredo, P., Keskinen, K. L., Rogriguez, F. A., Machado, L., & Vilas-Boas, J. P. (2011). Modeling off-transient oxygen uptake kinetics after maximal 200-m swims. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 43(5). Supplement abstract 1663.

  165. CRITICAL SPEED IN CRAWL STROKE CAN BE PREDICTED

    Barden, J. M., Kell, R. T., & Kobsar, D. (2011). Approximation of critical speed based on critical stroke rate in competitive front-crawl swimming. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 43(5).Supplement abstract 2322.

  166. ANAEROBIC TRAINING IS IMPORTANT FOR YOUNG SWIMMERS

    Marinho, D. A., Amorim, R. A., Costa, A. M., & Neiva, H. P. (2011). The relationship between "anaerobic" critical velocity and swimming performance in young swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 43(5). Supplement abstract 2451.

  167. ASSESS SWIMMING PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTORS WITH SWIMMING-SPECIFIC TESTS

    Pinna, M., Milla, R., Roberto, S., Loi, A., Ortu, M., Migliaccio, G. M., & Crisafulli, A. (2011). Comparison between specific and unspecific testing in swimming. A paper published by the Laboratorio di Fisiologia degli Sport, Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e dell'Ambiente, Universitŕ degli Studi di Cagliari, Italy.

  168. HYPEROXIA IN RECOVERY BENEFITS SWIMMING SPRINT PERFORMANCE BUT DOES NOT BENEFIT CYCLISTS IN HIGH-INTENSITY WORK

    Sperlich, B. (2011). Hyperoxic recovery: A potential tool for improving performance? Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 43(5). Supplement abstract 3035.

  169. ALTITUDE TRAINING CAMPS DO NOT ENHANCE ELITE SWIMMERS' PERFORMANCES

    Gough, C. E., Saunders, P. U., Fowlie, J., Savage, B., Pyne, D. B., Anson, J. M., Wachsmith, N., Prommer, N., & Gore, C. J. (January 12, 2012). Influence of altitude training modality on performance and total hemoglobin mass in elite swimmers. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 112, Published on line DOI 10.1007/s00421-011-2291-7.

  170. SODIUM BICARBONATE INGESTION IMPROVES BLOOD BUFFERING IN SWIMMERS

    Siegler, J. C., & Gleadall-Siddall, D. (2010). Sodium bicarbonate ingestion and repeated swim sprint performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 24, 3105-3111.

  171. ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD SHOULD ONLY BE EVALUATED WITH SWIMMING TESTS

    Pinna, M., Milia, R., Roberto, S., Marongiu, E., Olla, S., Loi, A., Ortu, M., Migliaccio, G. M., Tocco, F., Concu, A., & Crisafulli, A. (2013). Assessment of the specificity of cardiopulmonary response during tethered swimming using a new snorkel device. Journal of Physiological Science, 63, 7-16.

  172. ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD MEASUREMENT IN YOUNG SWIMMERS IS DIFFICULT

    Sousa, M., Vilas-Boas, J. P., & Fernandes, R. (2012). Comparison between individual and averaged methodologies for anaerobic threshold assessment of age-group swimmers. Presentation 1281 at the 59th Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, San Francisco, California; May 29-June 2, 2012.

  173. FRUIT AND VEGETABLE DRINK HAS NO OBVIOUS BENEFIT FOR SWIMMERS

    Knab, A. M., Gillitt, N. D., Ciadella-Kam, L., Nieman, D. C., & Shanely, R. A. (2012). Polyphenol rich juice supplementation in Olympic swimmers does not alter inflammation or immune biomarkers. Presentation 1396 at the 59th Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, San Francisco, California; May 29-June 2, 2012.

  174. YOUNG SWIMMERS' PULMONARY FUNCTION DEVELOPS NORMALLY

    Kojima, K., Wilhite, D. P., Ishimatsu, M., Wright, B. V., & Stager, J. M. (2012). Expiratory flow limitation during maximal exercise in young competitive swimmers following one-year of swim training. Presentation 2246 at the 59th Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, San Francisco, California; May 29-June 2, 2012.

  175. PUBERTY SIGNALS THE ONSET OF ACCELERATED GENDER DIFFERENCES IN YOUNG SWIMMERS

    Stager, J. M., & Cornett, A. (2012). Sex differences in childhood athletic performance. Presentation 1981 at the 59th Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, San Francisco, California; May 29-June 2, 2012.

  176. HEART RATE VARIABILITY CHANGES WITH ALTITUDE ADAPTATION

    Rodriguez, F. A., Iglesias, X., Feriche, B., Calderon, C., Abalos, X., Vazquez, J., Barrero, A., Rodriguez, L., Hynynen, E., & Levine, B. D. (2012). Effects of altitude training on heart rate variability in orthostatic test in elite swimmers. Presentation 1562 at the 59th Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, San Francisco, California; May 29-June 2, 2012.

  177. BRONCHOCONSTRICTION OCCURS IN PRACTICE SESSIONS IN SWIMMERS

    Luke-Zeitoun, M., Wildman-Tobriner, B., Ghio, E., Hatamiya, N., Luke, A., Nielson, D., Lazarus, S., & Gold, W. (2012). Post-exercise airway response to atropine in healthy elite swimmers. Presentation 2237 at the 59th Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, San Francisco, California; May 29-June 2, 2012.

  178. VITAMIN D SUPPLEMENTATION NOT ASSOCIATED WITH SWIMMING PERFORMANCE

    Constantini, N. W., Livne, N., Moran, D., Raz, R., & Dubnov-Raz, G. (2012). Vitamin D supplementation and physical performance in adolescent swimmers. Presentation 2863 at the 59th Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, San Francisco, California; May 29-June 2, 2012.

  179. HEART RATE VARIABILITY IS DIFFERENT FOR SWIMMERS IN TRAINING

    Hynynen, E., Iglesias, X., Feriche, B., Calderón, C., Ábalos, X., Vázquez, J., Barrero, A., Rodríguez, L., & Levine, B. D. (2012). Heart rate variability in orthostatic test during different training periods in elite swimmers. Presentation 2990 at the 59th Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, San Francisco, California; May 29-June 2, 2012.

  180. 200 m IS AN ADEQUATE STEP DURATION FOR ASSESSING PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS

    De Jesus, K., Baldari, C., de Jesus, K., Guidetti, L., Ribeiro, J., Vilas-Boas, J. P., & Fernandes, R. J. (2013). Are incremental 200m swimming step lengths proper for assessing relevant ventilatory parameters? Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 45(5), Supplement abstract number 528.

  181. DUBIOUS SUPPORT FOR BODY STRENGTH IN MALE SWIMMERS

    Uno, Y., Kasuga, K., & Fukutomi, K. (2013). The relationship between competitive ability and isokinetic trunk strength among university student swimmers. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 45(5), Supplement abstract number 532.

  182. CONTROLLED FREQUENCY BREATHING IS NO HARDER THAN NORMAL BREATHING IN FEMALES WHEN SWIMMING 100 YARDS

    Bunn, J. A., Key, M. A., & Eschbach, L. C. (2013). Assessment of the effects of controlled frequency breathing on lactate levels in swimming. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 45(5), Supplement abstract number 540.

  183. FEMALE SWIMMERS HAVE LOW BONE-MINERAL CONTENT AND BONE-DENSITY

    Stanforth, D., Stanforth, P. R., Stults-Kolehmainen, M. A., & Crim, B. N. (2014). Female collegiate athlete bone mineral content/density: Differences among sports and changes across three years. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 45(5), Supplement abstract number 2365.

  184. AN ADVANCEMENT IN THE CONCEPT OF EXERCISE FATIGUE

    Noakes, T. D. (2012). Fatigue is a brain-derived emotion that regulates the exercise behavior to ensure the protection of whole-body homeostasis. Frontiers in Physiology, 3, article 82, pp. 10.

Return to Swimming Science Journal Main Page.

blue line