Volume 3(4): February, 1998
This fourth issue of Volume 3 of Coaching Science Abstracts reviews articles concerned with individual differences among athletes. There is a paucity of research on this topic since it is primarily an assumption expounded by many coaches. However, it is in practices where the Principle of Individuality is violated. While it remains expedient for many coaches to prescribe training programs for groups of athletes and to consider programming content on a "team" basis, many athletes will be exposed to less than optimal training stimuli.
A major portion of this issue considers common physiological tests that are used to determine changes within athletes and differences between athletes. Often, such testing indicates individual differences. However, because of the coaching "cult-orientation" to groups of athletes ("teams"), important information in good test results is frequently overlooked.
Unless the individual needs of athletes are accommodated in coaching programs and by coaching practices, the vast majority of athletes will have little chance of achieving their sporting potential.
THE PRINCIPLE OF INDIVIDUALITY Extracted from Rushall, B. S., & Pyke, F. S. (1990). Training for sports and fitness. Melbourne, Australia: Macmillan. (pp. 84-95).
INDIVIDUAL COACHING Carlile, F. (personal communication, July 8, 1991).
NEED FOR INDIVIDUALIZED COACHING IN A WORLD CHAMPION Safe, M. (1992). The loneliness of the long-distance swimmer. The Australian Magazine, July 11-12, 8-11.
INDIVIDUALITY OF SWIMMERS' TRAINING RESPONSES Savage, M. V., Brown, S. L., Savage, P., & Bannister, E. W. (October, 1981). Physiological and performance correlates of training in swimmers. A paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Association of Sports Sciences, Halifax, Nova Scotia.
SPRINTERS AND DISTANCE RUNNERS RESPOND DIFFERENTLY TO EXERCISE Torok, D. J., Duey, W. J., Bassett, D. R., Jr., Howley, E. T., & Mancuso, P. (1995). Cardiovascular responses to exercise in sprinters and distance runners. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 27, 1050-1056.
BIOMECHANICAL NOT PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTORS DISCRIMINATE BETWEEN SWIMMERS OF DIFFERENT PERFORMANCE LEVELS Chatard, J. C., Collomp, C., Maglischo, E., & Maglischo, C. (1990). Swimming skill and stroking characteristics of front crawl swimmers. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 11, 156-161.
TALENTED VERSUS LESS TALENTED PERFORMERS Troup, J. P. (Ed.). (1990). Energy contributions of competitive freestyle events. In International Center for Aquatic Research annual: Studies by the International Center for Aquatic Research 1989-90. Colorado Springs: United States Swimming Press.
ANTHROPOMETRY NOT DISCRIMINATING Van Der Walt, R. S. (1988). Antropometriese tipering by topdeelnemers in verskillende Olimpiese sportsoorte. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation, 11, 101-120.
SWIMMING PERFORMANCE, BODY COMPOSITION, AND SOMATOTYPE Siders, W. A., Lukaski, H. C., & Bolonchuk, W. W. (1993). Relationships among swimming performance, body composition and somatotype in competitive collegiate swimmers. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 33, 166-171.
TESTING FOR PHYSICAL CAPACITIES
PROBLEMS WITH TESTING
COMMENTS ON "SCIENTIFIC TESTING" Rick L. Sharp (personal communication, 30 August, 1994).
TESTING FOR TESTING SAKE Rushall thoughts, (1996).
PHYSIOLOGICAL TESTING NOT USEFUL FOR ADVANCED ATHLETES Rushall thoughts, (1997).
SPECIFICITY OF TRAINING EFFECTS Mahler, D., Andrea, B., & Ward, J. (1987). Comparison of exercise performance on rowing and cycle ergometer. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 58, 41-46.
FITNESS VARIATIONS IN ELITE ATHLETES Koutedakis, Y. (1995). Seasonal variation in fitness parameters in competitive athletes. Sports Medicine, 19, 373-392.
MANUAL HEART RATES ARE USUALLY INACCURATE Norton, E., Vehrs, P. R., Ryan, N., & Jackson, A. S. (1997). Palpated vs electronically monitored heart rates in predicting VO2max with submaximal exercise tests. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29(5), Supplement abstract 275.
AGE AND TIME OF DAY AFFECTS VO2max Bergen, J. L., & Grubbs, L. M. (1966). Effect of age and time of day on VO2max. Medicine and Science in Exercise and Sports, 28(5), Supplement abstract 718.
TESTING FOR CAPACITIES
TESTS FOR CAPACITIES Telford, R. D., & Minikin, B. R. (1989). The tri-level test for runners - a simple method of general fitness evaluation. Excel, 6, 33-36.
TESTING MIDDLE DISTANCE RUNNERS Sleivert, G. G., & Reid, A. K. (1996). The relationship of aerobic and anaerobic indices to middle distance running performance. Medicine and Science in Exercise and Sports, 28(5), Supplement abstract 414.
NEUROMUSCULAR AND METABOLIC DETERMINANTS OF 5 km RUNNING Paavolainen, L., Hakkinen, K., Nummela, A. & Rusko, H. (1996). Importance of neuromuscular and metabolic determinants of 5 km running performance. Medicine and Science in Exercise and Sports, 28(5), Supplement abstract 753.
PHYSIOLOGICAL TESTS IN CROSS-COUNTRY SKIERS Bilodeau, B., Roy, B., & Boulay, M. R. (1995). Upper-body testing of cross-country skiers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 27, 1557-1562.
MUSCLE FIBERS DETERMINE WORK POTENTIAL Esbjornsson, M., Sylven, C., Holm, J., & Jansson, E. (1993). Fast twitch fibers may predict anaerobic performance in both females and males. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 14, 257-263.
TESTING FOR CRITICAL VELOCITY AND POWER
CRITICAL POWER MEASURES AEROBIC ADAPTATION Jenkins, D. G., & Quigley, B. M (1992). Endurance training enhances critical power. Medicine and Science in Exercise and Sports, 24, 1283-1289.
CRITICAL VELOCITY TESTS Weir, J. P., & Florence, S. L. (1996). Number of trials necessary for the critical velocity test. Medicine and Science in Exercise and Sports, 28(5), Supplement abstract 91.
CRITICAL VELOCITY Rowell, A. L., Williams, C. S., & Hill, D. W. (1996). Critical velocity is minimal velocity. Medicine and Science in Exercise and Sports, 28(5), Supplement abstract 101.
CRITICAL VELOCITY PREDICTS SWIMMING PERFORMANCE IN FEMALES Day, Y. J., & Lin, J. C. (1996). Critical velocity as a predictor of female front crawl swimming performance. Medicine and Science in Exercise and Sports, 28(5), Supplement abstract 940.
TESTING FOR POWER
STRENGTH AND POWER TESTING (DYNAMOMETRY) Abernethy, P., Wilson, G., & Logan, P. (1995). Strength and power assessment. Sports Medicine, 19, 401-417.
TESTING POWER Various authors.
MEASUREMENT OF COMPONENT OF SWIMMING POWER Sharp, R. L, Troup, J. P., & Costill, D. L. (1982). Relationship between power and sprint freestyle swimming. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 14, 53-56.
TESTING EXPLOSIVE POWER Igna, I., Wygand, J., & Otto, R. M. (1996). A comparison of two measures of explosive power. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 28(5), Supplement abstract 53.
POWER TESTING CONCEPTS Kraemer, W. J., & Newton, R. U. (1994). Training for improved vertical jump. Sports Science Exchange, 7(6), 1-12.
TESTING FOR ANAEROBIC FACTORS
ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD - A RELATIVELY USELESS CONCEPT FOR COACHING Billat, L. V. (1996). Use of blood lactate measurements for prediction of exercise performance and for control of training: Recommendations for long-distance running. Sports Medicine, 22, 157-175.
INCREMENT SIZE AFFECTS ESTIMATION OF MAXIMAL LACTATE STEADY STATE Foxdal, P., Sjodin, A., & Sojdin, B. (1995). Comparison of blood lactate concentrations obtained during incremental and constant intensity exercise. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 17, 360-365.
CONTRARY TO ACCEPTED OPINION, DIFFERENT PROTOCOLS YIELD THE SAME ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD, OR DO THEY? Santos, T. M., & Comes, P. S. (1997). Reproducibility of metabolic thresholds using two different exercise protocols in long-distance runners. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29(5), Supplement abstract 1160.
FACTORS AFFECTING ANAEROBIC TEST RESULTS Hill, D. W., Heidbrink, A. M., Low, T. D., & Smith, J. C. (1977). Comparison of indices of anaerobic capacity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29(5), Supplement abstract 59.
QUESTIONABLE VALIDATION OF LACTATE THRESHOLD TEST IN SWIMMING Barber, J. W., Williford, H. N., Duey, W. J., Pieri, S. R., & Barksdale, J. (1997). Validation of the T-30 and swimming step test in adolescent competitive swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29(5), Supplement abstract 289.
MEASURES OF EXCESS POST-EXERCISE OXYGEN CONSUMPTION ARE UNRELIABLE Comerford, S. R., Cordain, L., & Melby, C. L. (1997). Reliability of the measurement of excess post-exercise oxygen consumption following two identically controlled cycling bouts. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29(5), Supplement abstract 1108.
FURTHER PROBLEMS WITH MEASURING EXCESS POST-EXERCISE OXYGEN CONSUMPTION O'Malley, W. L., Quinn, T. J., Kertzer, R. & Vroman, N. B. (1977). Effects of exercise modality on excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) in female runners. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29(5), Supplement abstract 1109.
EPOC IS SPECIFIC TO THE EXERCISE TASK Dooly, C. R., Reed, K. C., & Dotson, C. O. (1997). Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption at different intensities with equal energy expenditure. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29(5), Supplement abstract 1113.
TESTING FOR AEROBIC FACTORS
VO2max RELIABILITY Yule, E., Kaminisky, L. A., Sedlock, D. A., King, B. A., & Whaley, M. H. (1996). Inter-laboratory reliability of VO2max and submaximal measurements. Medicine and Science in Exercise and Sports, 28(5), Supplement abstract 87.
VO2max TEST REPLICABILITY Duncan, G. E., Howley, E. T., & Johnson, B. N. (1996). Applicability of VO2max criteria. Medicine and Science in Exercise and Sports, 28(5), Supplement abstract 717.
VO2max IN TRIATHLETES Kerr, C. G., Trappe, T. A., & Trappe, S. W. (1996). Maximal aerobic power in triathletes during swimming, cycling, and running. Medicine and Science in Exercise and Sports, 28(5), Supplement abstract 754.
MEASURES OF OXYGEN COST ARE NOT LINEARLY RELATED TO WORK RATE Londeree, B. R., Moffitt-Gerstenberger, J., Padfield, J. A., & Lottmann, D. (1997). Oxygen consumption of cycle ergometry is nonlinearly related to work rate and pedal rate. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29, 775-780.
NO VO2 PLATEAU IN MOST CHILDREN Armstrong, N., Welsman, J., & Winsley, R. (1995). Is peak VO2 a maximal index of children's aerobic fitness? International Journal of Sports Medicine, 17, 356-359.
PREDICTING FROM TESTS
PREDICTION OF RUNNING PERFORMANCES Pompcu, F. A., Gomes, P. S., & Flegner, A. J. (1996). Prediction of performance in the 5,000 m run by means of laboratory and field tests in male distance runners. Medicine and Science in Exercise and Sports, 28(5), Supplement abstract 89.
PREDICTING BLOOD LACTATE FROM HEART RATES IN ROWERS Keller, B. A., Jones, M. T., Sigg, J. A., Harnish, C., & Ferriss, J. A. (1996). Prediction of blood lactate from recovery heart rate and power in collegiate oarsmen on a Concept II ergometer. Medicine and Science in Exercise and Sports, 28(5), Supplement abstract 416.
PREDICTING PERFORMANCE FROM PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASURES Watts, P., Clure, C., Hill, R., & Lish, A. (1996). Applied prediction of cross country skiing performance from physiological test data. Medicine and Science in Exercise and Sports, 28(5), Supplement abstract 794.
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