Volume 16(1): September, 2010

PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING 6

This first issue of Volume 16 of Coaching Science Abstracts reviews articles concerned with principles and factors associated with training program content. Five previous issues, namely Volume 1(1), Volume 4(1), Volume 7(1), Volume 10(1), and Volume 13(1), also dealt with this topic. The information from those five sources as well as that contained in this issue, will yield an extensive knowledge base of recent research in training topics associated with sports conditioning.

This volume constitutes the commencement of the sixth cycle of topics embraced by this journal. red line

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    1. GENERAL EFFECTS AND FACTORS

  1. INTERVAL TRAINING STIMULATES GREATER PHYSIOLOGICAL ADAPTATION THAN CONTINUOUS TRAINING

    Wee, R. K., McGregor, S. J., & Light, W. (2007). Intermittent 30s intervals performed at 100 and 70 % VO2peak Power (pVO2peak) allow trained cyclists to maintain VO2peak longer than continuous intervals at 100% pVO2peak. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number 2417.

  2. PREDICTING MARATHON TIMES USING DATA OR FORMULAE IS NO BETTER THAN INTUITIVE ESTIMATES

    Roberts, J. W. (2008). The accuracy of marathoners’ prediction of finish times without formulas or laboratory data. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis, Presentation Number 1287.

  3. REDUCED-TRAINING SESSIONS ARE NEEDED TO AVOID OVERREACHING

    Saunders, M. J., Filak, C. A., Crippen, D. C., & Bradley, G. E. (2008). Influence of reduced-volume training bout on markers of recovery during intensive training in professional cyclists. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis, Presentation Number 1289.

  4. EXERCISE RESPONSES ARE MODERATED BY MUSIC AND VIDEO

    Whitehead, J. R., Kleven, K. R., Brinkert, R. H., & Short, S. M. (2008). The effects of music and music-video distractions on exercise enjoyment, perceived exertion, and work output. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis, Presentation Number 2049.

  5. STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE TRAINING CAN BE UNDERTAKEN CONCURRENTLY

    Quigg, L. R., Quebedeaux, L. P., Mitchell, J.. B., & Upton, D. E. (2008). The effect of two concurrent training programs with different inter-session recovery on muscular strength. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis, Presentation Number 2162.

  6. LARGE BLOOD VOLUME IS RELATED TO ROWING PERFORMANCE

    Treff, G., Kahnert, A., Prommer, N., Voelzke, C., Wachsmuth, N., & Steinacker, J. M. (2008). Blood volume and total haemoglobin mass correlate with 2000m-time in elite rowers. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis, Presentation Number 2183.

  7. STILL NO EVIDENCE OF THE VALUE OF VISION TRAINING FOR SPORTS

    Wile, A. L., Doan, B. K., Brothers, M. D., & Zupan, M. F. (2008). Effects of sports vision training on visual skill performance. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis, Presentation Number 2189.

  8. HORMONAL RESPONSES ARE INFLUENCED BY TIME-OF-DAY AND EXERCISE

    Graham, K., Bourke, D, Buddee, A., Townsend, N., & Rehrer, N. (2008). Hormonal responses to a period of training and recovery in trained male rowers. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis, Presentation Number 798.

  9. AT HIGH POWER OUTPUT, ENERGY IS DERIVED FROM AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC SOURCES

    Ransom, V., Clark, A., vanLangen, F. A., Uitslag, T. P., Hettinga, F. J., dekoning, J. J., & Foster, C. (2008). Constant value of gross mechanical efficiency at high exercise intensity. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis, Presentation Number 802.

  10. SWIMMERS' AND COACH'S ACCOUNTING OF TRAINING CONTENT NOT SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT

    Foster, C., Wedekind, L., Battista, R. A., Pein, R., Needham, C., & Porcari, J. P. (2009). Comparison of coach vs. athlete ratings of training: Effect of sex and performance ability. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington, Presentation Number 1831.

  11. OLYMPIC SWIMMING PERFORMANCES DO NOT ALWAYS IMPROVE IN A CONSISTENT MANNER

    Brammer, C. L., Tanner, D. A., & Stager, J. M. (2009). Identification of bias in the natural progression of swim performance. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington, Presentation Number 1843.

  12. WELL-TRAINED AND RECREATIONALLY TRAINED RUNNERS RESPOND DIFFERENTLY TO EXERCISE

    Hetelid, K. J., Herold, E., & Seiler, S. (2009). Comparison of metabolic responses to high intensity interval training in trained and well-trained males. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington, Presentation Number 2915.

  13. COMPRESSION GARMENTS HAVE NO PERFORMANCE EFFECTS

    Hegele, M., Sperlich, B., Nitsch, S., & Mester, J. (2009). Compression garments and exercise - the effect of three different garments on endurance capacity. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington, Presentation Number 552.

  14. COMPRESSION GARMENTS AID RECOVERY FROM ENDURANCE EVENTS

    Hamlin, M. J., & de Glanville, K. M. (2009). Positive effect of compression garments on subsequent 40-km time-trial performance. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington, Presentation Number 735.

  15. AGE AND THE DECLINE OF RUNNERS' PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASURES ARE RELATED

    Swanson, N., Pritchett, R., Nethery, V., Perkins, R., Green, A., & D'Acquisto, L. J. (2009). Physiological responses to running in trained male collegiate and master level distance runners. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington, Presentation Number 2325.

  16. SWIMMERS' CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS COULD BE QUITE SUBTLE

    Kine, C. E., Devlin, T. M., Zielinski, M. R., Moore, T. A., Durstine, J. L., Davis, J. M., & Youngstedt, S. D. (2009). Time of habitual training does not alter circadian rhythm of swim performance. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington, Presentation Number 2747.

  17. TIME-OF-DAY DOES NOT AFFECT CYCLING PERFORMANCE

    Wilfong, E., Frederick, M., Krings, K., & Hoover, D. (2009). Time of day does not affect measures of performance while cycling. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington, Presentation Number 2812.

  18. TRAINING AFFECTS PERFORMANCE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL MARKERS DIFFERENTLY

    Hazell, T. J., MacPherson, R. E., Gravelle, B. M., & Lemon, P. W. (2009). Importance of sprint interval training duration and recovery time on endurance and power performance. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington, Presentation Number 976.

  19. TRAINING BLOOD FACTORS ARE NOT ASSOCIATED WITH EVENTUAL COMPETITION MEASURES

    Bonifazi, M., Sardella, F., & Lupo, C. (2000). Preparatory versus main competitions: differences in performances, lactate responses and pre-competition plasma cortisol concentrations in elite male swimmers. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 82, 368-373.

  20. THE BANNISTER MODEL OF TRAINING HAS DEFICIENCIES

    Hellard, P., Avalos, M., Lacoste, L., Barale, F., Chatard, J., & Millet, G. P. (2006). Assessing the limitations of the Banister model in monitoring training. Journal of Sports Science, 24, 509-520.

  21. EXHAUSTIVE ARM EXERCISE AFFECTS SUBSEQUENT LEG PERFORMANCE

    Gabe Beltrami, F., De Groot, R., Rauch, L., Tucker, R., Rae, D. E., & Noakes, T. D. (2009). Effects of prior exhaustive leg or arm exercise on subsequent performance, power, and EMG activity. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

  22. LONG-TERM INTENSIVE TRAINING REDUCES IMMUNE RESPONSE CAPABILITIES EARLY IN THE TRAINING SEASON

    Teixeira, A. M., Rama, L., Morgado, J. M., Azevedo, S., Matos, A., Henriques, A., Rosada, F., & Alves, F. (2009). Cytokine production by monocytes, but not neutrophils, is hampered by long-term intensive training in elite swimmers. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

  23. SHORT EXPLOSIVE SPRINTING CAN BE IMPROVED BY INCREASING STEP LENGTH: THE EFFECTS OF FOUR TRAINING PROTOCOLS

    Lockie, R., & Murphy, A. (2009). The effects of sprint, resistance, and plyometrics training on sprint acceleration kinematics and muscular function. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

  24. TRAINED RUNNERS RELY MORE ON AEROBIC ENERGY THAN DO UNTRAINED RUNNERS

    Balasekaran, G., Keong, L. M., Robertson, R. J., Veeramuthu, V., Woon, Y. T., & Govindaswamy, V. V. (June 2, 2010). Energy system contribution during 1,500 m running in untrained and endurance trained male college students. Presentation 1508 at the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; June 2-5.

  25. DIFFERENT TRIATHLON TRAINING IS WARRANTED FOR FEMALES COMPARED TO MALES

    Le Meur, Y., Hausswirth, C., Brisswalter, J., & Bernard, T. (2009). Influence of gender on pacing adopted by elite triathletes during a competition. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

  26. HIGH-INTENSITY TRAINING IMPROVES BOTH AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC FUNCTION

    Heyer, L., Breil, F., Lehmann, A., Reichlin, L., Prisi, D., & Vogt, M. (2009). Manipulation of training intensity distribution in distance runners and its impact on endurance performance: A cross-over study. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

  27. GENERAL PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASURES DO NOT PREDICT PERFORMANCE IN ELITE RUNNERS

    Ferri, A., Adamo, S., La Torre, A., Marzorati, M., Danzi, S., & Miserocchi, G. (2009). Peculiarity of the O2 delivery – O2 utilization system in middle distance runners: Correlation with performance. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

    2. CONTENT

  28. SHORT-DURATION INTERVALS BETTER FOR TRAINING THAN LONGER-DURATION INTERVALS

    Zuniga, J., Berg, K., Noble, J., Harder, J., Chaffin, M., & Hanumanthu, S. H. (2008). Physiological responses and role of VO2 slow component to interval training with different intensities and durations of work. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis, Presentation Number 1277.

  29. GENDER DIFFERENCES OCCUR WITH HIGH-INTENSITY INTERVAL TRAINING IN AVERAGE ATHLETES

    Graef, J. L., Kendall, K. L., Smith, A. E., Walter, A. A., Beck, T. W., Cramer, J. T., & Stout, J. R. (2008). The effects of acute high-intensity interval endurance training in men and women. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis, Presentation Number 1296.

  30. INTERVAL AND CONTINUOUS TRAINING HAVE DIFFERENT TRAINING EFFECTS

    Hsu, H., Ivy, J. L., & Kuo, C.-H. (2008). Effect of high and moderate intensity training on endurance, glucose metabolism and parasympathetic activity. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis, Presentation Number 1299.

  31. SUPPLEMENTAL OXYGEN IMPROVES WORK RATES AND CEREBRAL OXYGENATION

    Peltonen, J. E., Paterson, D. H., Shoemaker, J. K., DeLorey, D. S., duManoir, G. R., Petrella, R. J., & Kowalschuk, J. M. (2008). Effect of supplemental O2 on cerebral and muscle deoxygenation during severe exercise. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis, Presentation Number 1014.

  32. TRADITIONAL PERIODIZATION OF TRAINING IS NO LONGER RELEVANT FOR MODERN SERIOUS ATHLETES

    Issurin, V. (2008). Block periodization versus traditional training theory: a review. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 48(1), 65-75.

  33. SWIMMING TRAINING EMPHASIZING INTENSITY IS BETTER THAN A VOLUME-ORIENTED PROGRAM IN AGE-GROUP SWIMMERS

    Sperlich, B., Haegele, M., Heilemann, I., Zinner, C., De Marees, M., Achtzen, S., & Mester, J. (2009). Weeks of high intensity vs. volume training in 9-12 year-old swimmers. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington, Presentation Number 959.

  34. INTERVAL VS. CONTINUOUS TRAINING METHODS PRODUCE BOTH DIFFERENT AND SIMILAR EFFECTS ON PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASURES

    Foster, C., Poole, C., Bushey, B., & Wilborn, C. (2009). Comparison of aerobic training methods on VO2max, body composition, and anaerobic power. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington, Presentation Number 2897.

  35. MORE INTENSE TRAINING PRODUCES BETTER CARBOHYDRATE AND FAT UTILIZATION

    Usaj, A., Lojen, S., Kandare, F., & von Duvillard, S. P. (2009). The influence of two types of endurance training on carbohydrate and fat oxidation rates. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington, Presentation Number 981.

  36. HIGH-INTENSITY TRAINING MORE EFFICIENT AND BETTER THAN HIGH-VOLUME TRAINING IN AGE-GROUP ATHLETES

    Sperlich, B., Haegele, M., Achtzehn, S., De Marees, M., & Mester, J. (2009). High intensity exercise "HIT" in children: Results from different disciplines. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

  37. HIGH-INTENSITY TRAINING IS THE ONLY AVENUE FOR IMPROVING PHYSIOLOGICAL BASES OF PERFORMANCE IN HIGHLY-TRAINED ATHLETES

    Helgerud, J. (2009). Aerobic high-intensity intervals improve maximal oxygen uptake more than moderate training. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

  38. CHILDREN TOLERATE INTENSIVE INTERMITTENT EXERCISE BETTER THAN ADULTS

    Muller, J., Engel, F., & Ferrauti, A. (2009). Children tolerate intensive intermittent exercise better than adults. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

  39. ACTIVE RECOVERY WITHIN INTERMITTENT EXERCISE PROMOTES BETTER USE OF THE AEROBIC SYSTEM

    Mandroukas, A., Heller, J., Metaxas, T., Papavasiliou, A., Riganas, C., Karagiannis, V., Kotoglou, K., Christoulas, K., & Mandroukas, K. (2009). Cardiorespiratory and metabolic changes during and after three different modes of exercise. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

    3. SPRINT/ANAEROBIC TRAINING

  40. HYPERVENTILATE BEFORE ANAEROBIC EVENTS

    Beneke, R., Hutler, M., Leithauser, R. M., & Boning, D. (2009). Respiratory alkalosis enhances sprint performance. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington, Presentation Number 2022.

  41. SPRINT TRAINING TENDS TO BE MODE SPECIFIC

    Buchheit, M., Brughelli, M., Delhomel, G., & Ahmaidi, S. (2009). Effect of complex vs. repeated sprint training on repeated sprint ability and athletic performance in young elite soccer players. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

    4. ENDURANCE/AEROBIC TRAINING

  42. AEROBIC PERFORMANCES ARE LIKELY TO BE BETTER LATER IN THE DAY

    Chia-Ling, L., Mikat, R. P., Udermann, B. E., & Skemp-Arlt, K. M. (2007). Effect of time of a day on EPOC magnitude and duration. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number 754.

  43. ENDURANCE TRAINING AND COMPETING HAVE SPECIFIC ADAPTATIONS IN MUSCLE FIBER TYPES

    Kohn, T. A., Essen-Gustavsson, B., & Myburgh, K. H. (2007). Exercise pattern influences skeletal muscle hybrid fibers of runners and nonrunners. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 39, 1977-1984.

  44. ULTRAMARATHON SUCCESS IS REFLECTED IN TRAINING EXPERIENCES

    Baldea, J. D., Khodaee, M., Poddar, S. K., Hill, J. C., & Johnson, J. (2009). Training patterns, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication use, and effects on high-altitude ultramarathon performance. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington, Presentation Number 703.

  45. ONLY THE FAST VO2 KINETICS COMPONENT IS ASSOCIATED WITH SWIMMING PERFORMANCE

    Alves, F., Reis, J., Vleck, V., Bruno, P., & Millet, G. (2009). Oxygen uptake kinetics in heavy intensity exercise and endurance performance in swimmers. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington, Presentation Number 978.

    5. TAPER

  46. A FINAL MONTH OF BOOSTED OVERLOAD TRAINING PRODUCES A BETTER BUT REQUIRES A LONGER TAPER

    Thomas, L., Mujika, I., & Busson, T. (2008). A model study of optimal training reduction during pre-event taper in elite swimmers. Journal of Sports Sciences, 26, 643-652.

  47. MULTI-EVENT SPORTS REQUIRE MULTI-EVENT TAPERS

    Skiba, P. F., (2008). Calculation of optimal taper characteristics in an amateur triathlete. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis, Presentation Number 1288.

  48. TAPER REQUIRES PERFORMANCE QUALITY TO BE MAINTAINED

    Trinity, J. D., Pahnke, M. D., Sterkel, J. A., & Coyle, E. F. (2008). Maximal power and performance during a swim taper. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 29, 500-506.

    6. PACING

  49. EVEN-PACED AEROBIC PERFORMANCES PRODUCE THE BEST RESULTS

    Hettinga, F. J., De Koning, J. J., Emier, M., Teunissen, L., & Foster, C. (2007). Effect of pacing strategy on total, anaerobic and aerobic work during a 1500-m cycling time-trial. ACSM Annual Meeting New Orleans, Presentation Number 2552.

  50. EVEN-PACING IS THE BEST PERFORMANCE STRATEGY

    Hettinga, F. J., De Koning, J. J., Meijer, E., Teunissen, L, & Foster, C. (2007). Effect of pacing strategy on energy expenditure during a 1500-m cycling time trial. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 39, 2212-2218.

  51. CONSTANT PACING AFTER A SHORT FAST START PRODUCES THE BEST PERFORMANCE IN EVENTS OF APPROXIMATELY TWO MINUTES

    De Koning, J. J., Hettinga, F. J., Mulleman, M., & Foster, C. (2008). Relative importance of changes in pacing strategy and mean power output to performance. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis, Presentation Number 1302.

  52. RUNNING AND SWIMMING RACE PACING ARE MORE COMPLEX THAN COMMONLY BELIEVED

    Vesbach, S. J., De Koning, J. J., Lucia, A., Porcari, J. P., & Foster, C. (2009). Unique aspects of the pacing pattern in 800 m running and 200 m swimming. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington, Presentation Number 1829.

  53. IMPOSING A PACING STRATEGY RESULTS IN SLOWER PERFORMANCES

    Hettinga, F. J., De Koning, J. J., Schmidt, L., Wind, N., MacIntosh, B. R., & Foster, C. (2009). Imposing a theoretical optimal pacing strategy compared to self-paced competition in 1500-m speed skating. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington, Presentation Number 1834.

  54. FEMALES SENSE AND REQUIRE MORE EVEN PACING THAN MALES IN EXTENDED EVENTS

    Hoops, M. L., Vanderburgh, P. M., & March, D. S. (2009). Age, gender, and run time as determinants of pacing in the marathon. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington, Presentation Number 2796.

  55. ACTIVITY PACING IS LEARNED AND APPLIED TO VARIOUS DISTANCES WITH LITTLE EFFECT ON PERFORMANCE

    Mauger, A., Jones, A., & Williams, C. A. (2009). Influence of exercise variation on the retention of a pacing strategy. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 24-27.

  56. THREE BASIC SELF-SELECTED PACING STRATEGIES

    Smoglia, J. M., Nastase, L. M., Fisk, M. Z., Steigerwald, M. D., & Rundell, K. W. (June 02, 2010). Quantification of pacing strategies in a six-minute cycling work accumulation test Presentation 1614 at the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; June 2-5.

    7. INSPIRATORY TRAINING

  57. INSPIRATORY MUSCLE TRAINING HAS SMALL POTENTIAL FOR IMPROVING AEROBIC PERFORMANCES

    Walsh, L., Diaz, A., Marra, J., Kushner, C., Otto, R. M., & Wygand, J. W. (2008). The effect of inspiratory muscle training on time trial performance of college cross country runners. ACSM 55th Annual Meeting Indianapolis, Presentation Number 1807.

  58. INSPIRATORY MUSCLE TRAINING DOES NOT ALTER VENTILATORY RESPONSES IN FEMALE RUNNERS

    Brilla, L. R., Schwerdtfeger, K. L., Knutzen, K. M., & Row, B. S. (2009). Effects of inspiratory muscle training on arterial oxygen-hemoglobin saturation in female collegiate endurance runners. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington, Presentation Number 2800.

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