EXPERT VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS ARE SUPERIOR IN SELF-REGULATION FACTORS
Kitsantas, A., & Zimmerman, B. J. (2002). Comparing self-regulatory processes among novice, non-expert, and expert volleyball players: A microanalytic study. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 14, 91-105.
Expert, non-expert, and novice female college volleyball players (N = 30) were evaluated on overhand serving skill at a practice session. A number of specifically, but non-scientifically developed tools assessed 12 psychological variables covering self-regulation.
Experts were superior to the other two groups in all measures: goal-setting, self-efficacy, planning, strategy use, self-monitoring, self-evaluation, attributions, adaptation, self-efficacy beliefs, perceived instrumentality, intrinsic interest, and self-satisfaction. These characteristics indicate the forms of mental skills training that could be developed to produce a better psychological capacity for improved performances.
Implication. Self-regulation variables (N = 12) are more evident in expert female volleyball players than in non-experts or novices.
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