Davis, J. E., & Cox, R. H. (2000). Interpreting direction of anxiety within Hanin's Individual Zone of Optimal Functioning. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(5), Supplement abstract 407.

This study examined the compatibility of Jones' (1991) directionality hypothesis and Hanin's Individual Zone of Optimal Functioning theory (IZOF). Pre-competitive anxiety (CSAI-2 modified to assess directionality) was measured repeatedly 10 minutes before races in 21 male high school swimmers. Optimal cognitive and somatic anxiety scores associated with best swimming performance were identified for each S. IZOF was identified for each swimmer by adding and subtracting .5 standard deviations to cognitive and somatic anxiety scores. Performance scores falling below, in, and above the IZOF were compared for both forms of anxiety.

Cognitive anxiety was related to performance but not somatic anxiety. No interactions were significant. The "in" IZOF was significantly different to the combined scores of the "below" and "above" categories. There was no significant relationship between directionality and IZOF level for cognitive or somatic anxiety.

Hanin's IZOF theory was only supported for cognitive state anxiety.

Implication. The two theories of anxiety function were not related. They implicate different components of performance. A "zone" of optimal functioning only occurs with cognitive anxiety, and not somatic anxiety. Neither theory was supported in these data.

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