Kirschenbaum, D. S., Owens, D., & O'Connor, A. (1998). Smart golf: Preliminary evaluation of a simple, yet comprehensive, approach to improving and scoring the mental game. The Sport Psychologist, 12, 271-282.

Smart Golf is a package of mental activities and skills, a strategy, covering the following: preparation, positive focusing (positive self-monitoring), planning, application, and reaction. Smart Golf use is monitored by a simple scoring system that promotes self-reinforcement.

In a preliminary evaluation of the package, five experienced golfers, of a wide range of standards, participated in a four-week seminar. Process measures were gathered to indicate the extent to which the package was used and outcome measures (golf scores) were monitored, pre- and post-intervention, and at a three-month follow-up.

Participants used the approach consistently from initiation to follow-up, although there was a slight diminution in the follow-up period. All Ss improved in emotional control and positive self-talk as well as scores and handicaps.

Implication. The planning of and focus on the total golf experience produced performance improvements as well as in psychological skills useful for the game situation. This form of strategy is an effective contribution to performance and the psychology of participants.

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