Filby, W. C., Maynard, I. W., & Graydon, J. K. (1999). The effect of multiple-goal strategies on performance outcomes in training and competition. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 11, 230-246.

This study investigated the value of multiple-goal strategies. Ss (N = 40) were divided into five groups (N = 8) each matched for ability on a soccer task. Four of the groups used different combinations of outcome, performance, and process goals while the other acted as a no-treatment control. The experimental groups were as follows:

Performance was measured over a 5-week training period, and then in a competition.

The multiple-goal groups demonstrated superior performance at training and in the game. There was no difference between the combination conditions suggesting that performance goals have no additive effect to the combination of process and outcome goals. The control (no-goal) Ss performed as well as the two single-goal Ss.

Implication. Multiple goals involving process and outcome goals produce superior training and competitive performances over single or no-goal conditions.

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