Volume 7(3): November, 2001
SPECIFICITY OF TRAINING 3
This third issue of Volume 7 of Coaching Science Abstracts reviews articles concerned with the specificity of training, a principle that is often overlooked in the pursuit of training variety, and the ill-advised and wasteful concept of cross-training. Two previous issues, namely Volume 1(2) and Volume 4(2), also dealt with this topic. The information from those two sources, as well as that contained in this issue, will yield an extensive knowledge base of recent research in the specificity of sports conditioning.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
SPECIFICITY DUALISM IN SWIMMING Rushall Thoughts (1998).
GOOD AND LESSER VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS ARE DIFFERENTIATED BY SPECIFIC SKILL TESTS Thissen-Milder, M., & Mayhew, J. L. (1991). Selection and classification of high school volleyball players from performance tests. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 31, 380-384.
CROSS-TRAINING: A MISNOMER Hawley, J. A., & Burke, L. M. (1998). Peak performance: Training and nutritional strategies for sport. Sydney, Australia: Allen and Unwin .
STRENGTH TRAINING IS MODALITY AND CAPACITY SPECIFIC Schwirian, C. I., Hagerman, F. C., Staron, R. S., Hagerman, G., Toma, K., Luecke, T., & Mannini, T. (1998). Muscular strength, muscular endurance, and aerobic capacity adaptations to resistance training using the sport cord. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30(5), Supplement abstract 940.
STRENGTH ACTIVITIES ONLY IMPROVE SPECIFIC STRENGTH Luecke, T., Wendeln, H., Campos, G. R., Hagerman, F. C., Hikida, R. S., & Staron, R. S. (1998). The effects of three different resistance training programs on cardiorespiratory function. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30(5), Supplement abstract 1125.
TECHNIQUES OF SKI JUMPING ARE SPECIFIC FOR EACH HILL French, J. P., & Rundell, K. W. (1998). Kinematics of nordic jumping from a standard 90-m jump and a 6.4-m indoor jump. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30(5), Supplement abstract 1770.
FIBER AND ENERGY USE DIFFER WITHIN SPRINTING DISTANCES Ring, S., Mader, A., & Mougious, V. (1999). Plasma ammonia response to sprint swimming. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 39, 128-132.
VARYING OR ALTERING AN EXERCISE CHANGES NEUROMUSCULAR PATTERNS McCaw, S. T., & Melrose, D. R. (1999). Stance width and bar load effects on leg muscle activity during the parallel squat. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31, 428-436.
ADDITIONAL CYCLING CROSS TRAINING NO BETTER THAN ADDITIONAL RUNNING Flynn, M. G., Carroll, K. K., Hall, H. L., Bushman, B. A., Brolinson, P. G., & Weideman, C. A. (1998). Cross training: Indices of training stress and performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30, 294-300.
HEAVY-RESISTANCE TRAINING DOES NOT IMPROVE SEATED SHOT PUT POWER Mayhew, J. L., Ware, J. S., Johns, R. A., & Bemben, M. G. (1997). Changes in upper body power following heavy-resistance strength training in college men. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 18, 516-520.
STRENGTH AND POWER TRAINING IN YOUNG MALE BASEBALL PLAYERS DOES NOT IMPROVE FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE Hetzler, R. K., DeRenne, C., Buxton, B. P., Ho, K. W., Chai, D. X., & Seichi, G. (1997). Effects of 12 weeks of strength training on anaerobic power in prepubescent male athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 11, 174-181.
SQUAT TRAINING DOES NOT IMPROVE VERTICAL JUMPING Weiss, L., Fry, A., Wood, L., & Melton, C. (1998). Comparative effects of deep versus shallow periodized squat training by novice lifters. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30(5), Supplement abstract 942.
STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING PROGRAMS DO NOT IMPROVE DYNAMIC PERFORMANCES IN FOOTBALL PLAYERS Miller, T. A., White, E. D., Kinley, K. A., Clark, M. J., & Congleton, J. J. (1999). Changes in performance following long-term resistance training in division 1A collegiate football players. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31(5), Supplement abstract 1467.
FATIGUE INDUCES VELOCITY DEGRADATION AND GREATER GROUND CONTACT IN RUNNERS Nummela, A., Stray-Gundersen, J., & Rusko, H. (1996). Effects of fatigue on stride characteristics during a short-term maximal run. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 12, 151-160.
HAND PADDLES VIOLATE THE PRINCIPLE OF SPECIFICITY Ogita, F., Onodera, T., & Izumi, T. (1999). Effect of hand paddles on anaerobic energy release during supramaximal swimming. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31, 729-735.
INCREASED LEG STRENGTH DOES NOT IMPROVE CYCLING PERFORMANCE Bishop, D., Jenkins, D. G., MacKinnon, L. T., McEniery, M., & Carey, M. F. (1999). The effects of strength training on endurance performance and muscle characteristics. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31, 886-891.
SMALL AMOUNTS OF NON-SPECIFIC CYCLING TRAINING PRODUCE NO TIME TRIAL IMPROVEMENTS Stepto, N. K., Hopkins, W. G., Hawley, J. A., & Dennis, S. (1998). Lack of specificity in the effect of interval training on endurance cycling performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30(5), Supplement abstract 202.
SAND RUNNING IS AS GOOD AS ROAD RUNNING IN THE SHORT TERM IN ACTIVE YOUNG PEOPLE Yigit, S. S., & Tuncel, F. (1998). A comparison of the endurance training responses to road and sand running in high school and college students. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 12(2), 79-81.
SPORT-SPECIFIC, BUT ACTIVITY VARIED TRAINING, IMPROVES SPRINTING PERFORMANCES Paradisis, G. P., & Cooke, C. B., (1999). Some adaptations to sprint training on sloping surfaces. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31(5), Supplement abstract 785.
SWIMMING MOVEMENT PATTERNS ARE VELOCITY SPECIFIC Rouard, A.H., Billat, R.P., Deschodt, V., & Clarys, J.P. (1977). Muscular activations during repetitions of sculling movements up to exhaustion in swimming. Archives of Physiological Biochemistry, 105(7), 655-662.
SPEED OF WEIGHT TRAINING EXERCISES IMPROVES PERFORMANCES AT SIMILAR SPEEDS Liow, D. K., & Hopkins, W. G. (1998). Velocity specificity of heavy weight training for kayak sprint performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30(5), Supplement abstract 621.
RACE-PACE WORK IMPROVES SIMULATED RACE PERFORMANCE Stepto, N. K., Hawley, J. A., Dennis, S. C., & Hopkins, W. G. (1999). Effects of different interval-training programs on cycling time-trial performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31, 736-741.
TRANSITIONS IN TRIATHLONS NEED TO BE PRACTICED Hue, O., Le Gallais, D., Boussana, A., Chollet, D., Prefaut, C. (1999). Ventilatory responses during experimental cycle-run transition in triathletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31, 1422-1428.
INDIVIDUALIZED TRAINING IN TEAM SPORTS PRODUCES SPECIFIC FITNESS IMPROVEMENTS Di Salvo, V., & Pigozzi, F. (1998). Physical training of football players based on their positional roles in the team. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 38, 294-297.
LEVEL OF SKILL DIFFERENTIATES THE BEST MARTIAL ARTISTS Todd, M. K., Harrison, M. L., & Chisnall, P. J. (1999). Sport specific fitness of Ju-jitsu martial artists. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31(5), Supplement abstract 748.
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