Porcari, J. P., Steffan, J., Fater, D., Eber, T., Seimer, B., Angilini, M., & Holloway, K. (1996). Effects of 12 weeks of stationary cycling, treadmill walking, stepping, or simulated cross-country skiing on aerobic capacity and body composition. Medicine and Science in Exercise and Sports, 28(5), Supplement abstract 77.

Untrained individuals were grouped to exercise on a variety of apparatuses. Aerobic and body composition measures were recorded before and after 12 weeks of training.

When Ss trained at the same exercise intensity and made similar reductions in caloric intake, changes in aerobic capacity and body composition were similar for all modes of exercise.

Implication. The initial adaptations to exercise stress are non-discriminatory. Gross measures of aerobic capacity and body composition are not sensitive to an specific adaptations if they occur at all. The assertion that any exercise in initially untrained individuals will boost fitness indexes irrespective of the modality used was supported by this investigation. However, such an assertion would not be appropriate for highly trained individuals participating in a specific sport.

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