Spriett, L. L. (1995). Caffeine and performance. International Journal of Sport Nutrition, 5, S84-S99.

In laboratory settings, caffeine ingestion (3-9 mg/kg BW) prior to exercise increases performance in prolonged endurance exercise and short-term intense exercise lasting approximately 5 min. These ergogenic effects are present even when urinary levels are below the IOC limit of 12 micrograms/ml.

Implication. Caffeine should be considered for banning as an unfair ergogenic aid. That would mean an athlete would have to abstain from ingestion of caffeine for 72 hours prior to competing.

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