Hawley, J. A., Sanders, B., Dennis, S. C., & Noakes, T. D. (1996). Effect of ingesting varying concentrations of sodium on fluid balance during exercise. Medicine and Science in Exercise and Sports, 28(5), Supplement abstract 350.

Three concentration levels of sodium were ingested in gel capsule form along with an 8% carbohydrate (CHO) solution during 4 hours of moderate intensity (55% VO2max) exercise. The high concentration NaCl (100 mEq/l) caused plasma volume to expand.

It was concluded that the addition of high concentrations of NaCl to a CHO solution ingested during prolonged exercise has a positive effect on fluid balance.

Implication. CHO supplementations should be accompanied by salt ingestion during very extended contests.

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