Bartoli, W. P., Horn, M. K., & Murray, R. (1995). Delayed gastric emptying during exercise with repeated ingestion of 8% carbohydrate solution. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 27(5), Supplement abstract 77.

CHO solutions of 0, 4, 6, 8% concentrations were ingested during 90 min cycling ergometer rides in 14 Ss. The 8% solution slowed gastric emptying significantly more than the other concentrations.

Implication. If an athlete attempts to drink to replenish CHO and fluid during practice or competitive tasks, it is best to have a dilute solution rather than one that is concentrated. The maximum concentration should be less than 8% if the ingredients contain glucose, sucrose, fructose, and maltodextrin.

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