French, J. R., Morrison, H. W., & Levinger, G. (1960). Coercive power and forces affecting conformity. Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology, 61, 93-101.

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Applicable to the negative coach. "The use of threat or coercion, in which the controller derives power from his [sic] ability to administer punishments, not only develops avoidance behavior toward the controller, but also decreases his [sic] attractiveness and hence, his effectiveness in altering the behavior of others beyond the immediate social influence setting".

Implication. A coach who is "tough" and "demanding" when errors are made drives athletes away from him/her and possibly the sporting environment.

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