Rushall Thoughts, (1993).

"HRs are not all that valuable for monitoring training adaptation. How many times will we go over this? HRs are a measure of central adaptation to training. Central adaptations occur early and stabilize earlier than do peripheral (cellular) adaptations. Thus, when an athlete is reasonably trained, the central circulation no longer adapts. People seem to forget that circulation is not a limiting factor in exercise. In the biological hierarchy of things, it is fully adapted so that more refined (specific) peripheral adaptations can occur. HR does not change any more once a reasonable level of fitness is achieved (probably after aerobic capacity is fully adapted). Incidentally, it is my observation that triathletes and rowers here in San Diego all invested in sophisticated HR monitors and now have largely discarded them because they no longer reflect training changes that are experienced by the athletes."

Implication. It is very unlikely that HRs will change in athletes who are adapted (trained) over the year. Let's get serious about what is important for swimming. This obsessive preoccupation with a trivial and dubious measure is a waste of time.

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