Prapavessis, H., Grove, J. R., McNair, P. J., & Cable, N. T. (1992). Self-regulation training, state anxiety, and sport performance: A psychophysiological case study. The Sport Psychologist, 6, 213-229.

A small-bore rifle shooter who suffered from high levels of competition-related anxiety was the subject of this study. Self-report, physiological, and behavioral measures of baseline state anxiety were obtained during a competition. An intervention (six weeks) included relaxation training, thought stopping, refocusing, coping statements, and biofeedback. An opportunity to use these procedures in competition was provided. Measures of state anxiety and performance were then obtained in a second competition.

Cognitive and somatic anxiety, gun vibration, and urinary catecholamines decreased while self-confidence and performance increased from baseline to post-treatment.

Implication A multi-dimensional approach to reducing anxiety in an athlete was successful in reducing anxiety and improving performance.

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