Anshel, M. H., & Wrisberg, C. A. (1993). Reducing warm-up decrement in the performance of a tennis serve. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 15, 290-303.

Highly skilled tennis players (N = 70) hit 20 serves, rested for either 5 or 15 minutes, and then attempted four final serves. During the last two minutes of the rest period, Ss engaged in mental imagery, running in place, performing practice swings, or hit the ball against the ground and caught it, or continued to rest. Measures of serving accuracy and somatic and cognitive arousal were obtained at the beginning and end of the rest interval.

Practice-swings were the most effective warm-up for restoring somatic and cognitive arousal and for eliminating performance decrement due to inactivity in the rest period.

Implication. At the end of a rest period, the best activity that can be performed is the intended activity itself. This eliminates the negative effect of inactivity during rest and modifies the mental state of the athlete.

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